Momwe mungapangire zopangira zamoyo

Canister yokhala ndi mafuta amafuta, mpendadzuwa biodiesel

Pangani biodiesel yathu yathu ndi mafuta atsopano kapena omwe agwiritsidwa ntchito ndizotheka ngakhale ili ndi mavuto ena.

Munkhaniyi ndikukuwuzani momwe mungapangire biodiesel kuphatikiza pamavuto omwe atchulidwa koma choyambirira ndikudziwa zomwe tikupanga.

Biodiesel ndi Zamadzimadzi zamadzimadzi zomwe zimachokera ku mafuta a masamba ogwiririra, mpendadzuwa ndi nyemba za soya pakadali pano ndi zida zogwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri, ngakhale kupeza kwawo ndi mbewu za algae kukuwerengedwanso.

Katundu wa biodiesel amafanana kwambiri ndi a dizilo yamagalimoto potengera kuchuluka kwake ndi kuchuluka kwa cetane, ngakhale ili ndi malo owala kwambiri kuposa dizilo, mawonekedwe omwe amachititsa kuti azitha kusakanikirana ndi kotsekerako mafuta.

American Society for Testing and Material Standard (ASTM, bungwe lapadziko lonse lapansi la miyezo yabwino) limatanthauzira biodiesel monga:

"Monoalkyl esters amtundu wautali wamafuta amchere omwe amachokera ku lipids zosinthika monga mafuta a masamba kapena mafuta azinyama, ndipo amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zida zamagetsi"

Komabe, esters omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndi methanol ndi ethanol (yochokera ku transesterification yamtundu uliwonse wamafuta a masamba kapena mafuta a nyama kapena kuchokera ku mafuta amchere) chifukwa cha mtengo wake wotsika komanso phindu lake la mankhwala ndi thupi.

Kusiyana kwa mafuta ena ndikuti biofuels kapena biofuels ndi omwe amagwiritsa ntchito popanga masamba ngati zopangira, chifukwa chake ndikofunikira kwambiri kuzindikira mawonekedwe a misika yaulimi.

Chifukwa chake, ziyenera kudziwika kuti Kukula kwa bizinesi ya biofuel Sizidalira makamaka kupezeka kwa zopangira, koma pakupezeka kofunikira.

Poonetsetsa kuti pakupezeka zofunikira zamafuta, chitukuko cha msika wanu chitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kulimbikitsa mfundo zina monga ulimi, kukomera ntchito pantchito zoyambilira, kuchuluka kwa anthu kumadera akumidzi, chitukuko cha mafakitale ndi ntchito zaulimi, komanso nthawi yomweyo kuchepetsa zovuta zakusokonekera kwachipululu chifukwa chodzala mbewu zamagetsi.

Biodiesel kuchokera kugwiriridwa

Mbewu zopangira mphamvu

ASTM imanenanso kuyesa kosiyanasiyana komwe kuyenera kuchitidwa pamafuta kuti agwiritse ntchito bwino chifukwa pakugwiritsa ntchito biodiesel ngati mafuta agalimoto, mawonekedwe a esters omwe amafanana ndi dizilo ayenera kukumbukiridwa. .

Ubwino ndi zovuta za biodiesel

Chimodzi mwamaubwino omwe tingapeze tikamagwiritsa ntchito biofuel m'malo mwa dizilo ndi Kusunga zachilengedwe ya Dziko Lapansi chifukwa ndi gwero la mphamvu zowonjezereka.

Ubwino wina ndi kutumiza kwa biofuels kunjaZikachitika ku Spain, mwanjira imeneyi kudalira kwathu mphamvu pazinthu zakufa, zomwe ndi 80%, kumachepetsanso.

Mofananamo, zimakonda Kukula ndi kukonza anthu akumidzi zomwe zaperekedwa pakupanga biofuel iyi.

Kumbali ina, zimathandiza kuchepa kwa mpweya wa CO2 kupita kumlengalenga, komanso kuthana ndi vuto la mvula yamchere popeza mulibe sulfure.

Pokhala chinthu chowonongeka ndipo chosakhala chakupha, icho amachepetsa kuipitsa nthaka ndi kuopsa kwa kawopsedwe mu kutayika kulikonse mwangozi.

Zimathandizira chitetezo chachikulu popeza ili ndi mafuta abwino kwambiri komanso malo owala kwambiri.

Pazovuta, titha kutchula zingapo monga mtengo wake. Pakadali pano, sichipikisana ndi dizilo wamba.

Ponena za luso, ali ndi mtengo wochepa wa calorific, ngakhale sizitanthauza kutaya mphamvu kapena kuwonjezeka kwakukulu pakumwa.

Kumbali ina, zatero kuchepetsa kukhazikika kwa okosijeni, izi ndizofunikira pankhani yosungira, ndipo imakhala ndi kuzizira koipitsitsa, komwe kumapangitsa kuti isamagwirizane pamafunde otsika kwambiri. Komabe, zinthu ziwiri zomalizazi zitha kukonzedwa powonjezera zowonjezera.

Momwe tingapangire biodiesel yathuyathu

Pezani biodiesel yathu ndizoopsa kwambiri pazogulitsa zamankhwala zomwe tiyenera kugwiritsa ntchito pachifukwa ichi ndingonena izi pamwambapa kuti musaganize zochitira kunyumba pokhapokha mutatsatira njira zonse zachitetezo kuwonjezera pa kukhala lembetsani ku Spain, popeza ndiloletsedwa kutulutsa biofuel iyi.

Choyamba ndi kuyamba kuyesa ndi lita imodzi ya mafuta atsopano chifukwa izi ndizosavuta kuposa mafuta omwe agwiritsidwa ntchito, ngakhale tikufuna kupatsa mafuta omalizawa kachiwiri. Mukakhala ndi ulamuliro pamafuta atsopano mutha kupita ku mafuta omwe agwiritsidwa ntchito ndipo zomwe mungafunike pakadali pano ndi blender, kumbukirani kuti simungagwiritse ntchito china chilichonse kuti blender akhale amodzi akale kapena wotsika mtengo.

Njirayi

Monga tanena kale, biodiesel imapezeka kuchokera ku mafuta ochokera ku masamba komwe kuchokera pamawonekedwe am'madzi amadziwika kuti triglycerides

Molekyu iliyonse ya triglyceride imapangidwa ndi ma molekyulu atatu amafuta omwe amalumikizidwa ndi molekyulu imodzi ya glycerin.

Zomwe akufuna kuchita (wotchedwa kulowetsa) pakupanga biofuel yathu ndikulekanitsa mafutawa kuchokera ku glycerin kutithandiza kukhala ndi chothandizira, atha kukhala NaOH kapena KOH, motero amatha kulumikiza ndikumanga aliyense wa iwo ku molekyu ya methanol kapena ethanol.

Zofunikira pazogulitsa

Chimodzi mwazinthu zomwe tigwiritse ntchito ndi mowa. Izi zikhoza kukhala methanol (yomwe imapanga methyl esters) kapena Mowa (yomwe imapanga ethyl esters).

Apa vuto loyamba limabuka chifukwa mukasankha kupanga biodiesel ngati methanol, ndikukuwuzani kuti simungathe kupanga zokomazi chifukwa zomwe zilipo zimachokera ku gasi.

Komabe, ethanol imatha kupangidwa kunyumba ndipo zomwe zimapezeka zimachokera kuzomera (zotsalazo ndi mafuta).

Zitini za mankhwala

Chokhumudwitsa ndicho kupanga biodiesel ndi Mowa ndi kovuta kwambiri kuposa ndi methanolsizoyambira kumene.

Onse methanol ndi ethanol ali ndi poizoni zomwe muyenera kukumbukira nthawi zonse chitetezo.

Ndi mankhwala owopsa omwe amatha kukuchititsa khungu kapena kukupha, ndipo monganso kumwa, ndikovulazanso mwa kuyamwa kudzera pakhungu lanu ndikupumira nthunzi.

Poyeserera kunyumba mutha kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta a kanyenya omwe ali ndi methanol ngakhale mukuyenera kukumbukira kuti chiyero chiyenera kukhala osachepera 99% ndipo ngati ili ndi chinthu china sichingachite chilichonse ngati ethanol.

ChothandiziraMonga tanenera, akhoza kukhala KOH kapena NaOH, potaziyamu hydroxide ndi caustic soda motsatana, chosavuta kupeza kuposa china.

Monga methanol ndi ethanol, soda ingagulidwe mosavuta koma ndizovuta kuthana nayo kuposa potaziyamu hydroxide, yomwe imalimbikitsidwa kwambiri kwa oyamba kumene.

Zonsezi ndizosakanikirana, kutanthauza kuti zimangotenga chinyezi mlengalenga, zimachepetsa kuthekera kwawo kuchititsa chidwi. Ziyenera kusungidwa nthawi zonse muzidebe zosindikizidwa bwino.

Njirayi ndi yofanana ndi KOH monga NaOH, koma ndalamazo ziyenera kukhala zopitilira 1,4 (1,4025).

Kusakaniza methanol ndi potaziyamu hydroxide ndipamene sodium methoxide yomwe imakhala yowola kwambiri komanso yofunikira popanga biodiesel.

Pogwiritsa ntchito methoxide, gwiritsani ntchito zotengera zopangidwa ndi HDPE (high-density polyethylene), galasi, chitsulo chosapanga dzimbiri, kapena chokongoletsera.

Zipangizo ndi ziwiya (chilichonse chiyenera kukhala choyera komanso chowuma)

  • Lita imodzi ya mafuta atsopano, osaphika.
  • 200 ml ya 99% ya methanol yoyera
  • Chothandizira, chomwe chingakhale potaziyamu hydroxide (KOH) kapena sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
  • Chosakanizira chakale.
  • Kusamala ndi 0,1 gr resolution (ngakhale bwino ndi 0,01 gr resolution)
  • Kuyeza magalasi a methanol ndi mafuta.
  • Translucent yoyera ya HDPE theka la lita imodzi ndi kapu ya screw.
  • Mafelemu awiri omwe amalowa mkamwa mwa chidebe cha HDPE, imodzi ya methanol ndi ina yothandizira.
  • Botolo la pulasitiki la PET la malita awiri (madzi abwinobwino kapena botolo la soda) louma.
  • Mabotolo apulasitiki awiri a malita awiri a PET osamba.
  • Thermometer

Chitetezo, chofunikira kwambiri

Pachifukwa ichi tiyenera kukumbukira njira zingapo zachitetezo komanso zida zodzitetezera monga:

  • Magolovesi osagwirizana ndi zinthu zomwe tikufuna kugwira, izi ziyenera kukhala zazitali kuti ziphimbe manja ndipo motero manja amatetezedwa kwathunthu.
  • Chovala ndi magalasi oteteza kuphimba thupi lonse.
  • Nthawi zonse muzikhala ndi madzi pafupi mukamagwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa.
  • Kuntchito kuyenera kukhala ndi mpweya wokwanira.
  • Osapuma mpweya. Pachifukwachi pali masks apadera.
  • Sipangakhale anthu kunja kwa ndondomekoyi, ana, kapena ziweto pafupi.

Kodi mutha kupanga biodiesel m'nyumba iliyonse?

Powonjezerapo nthabwala kuzinthu zowopsa pamndandanda "La que se avecina" zimajambula mosavuta ndi mawu oti "akuwomba omwe ndi gerund" koma kwenikweni sichoncho, kupatula kukhala owopsa, komanso kuti muli tawona achikhazikitso, zida.

Popanda kupereka malangizo ambiri, ndikukutsimikizirani kuti padakali njira yayitali kuti apange biodiesel kuyambira koyambirira kusefa mafuta (ndiye amene amatisangalatsa), ndiye kuti tiyenera kupanga sodium methoxide, kuchita zofunikira, kusintha ndi kulekana.

Tiyeneranso kuwunika mtundu wa malonda omwe adapangidwa ndi mayeso osamba ndikumaliza.

Zojambula zokometsera zokhazikika ku Spain

Ngakhale zabwino zomwe biodiesel imatha kupereka, in Spain pakali pano siyiloledwa kuti ifike kunyumba.

Mayiko ena amalola kutulutsa biofuel iyi komanso kugulitsa zida zopangira kuti aliyense amene ali ndi njira zoyenera zachitetezo athe kuzipanga.

Kupanga kwa biodiesel

Mwini, nazi zifukwa ziwiri zosaloledwa kwa biodiesel yokometsera.

Choyamba ndikuti Spain amatisamalira komanso aletsa kupanga kwake chifukwa chowopsa izi zimaphatikizapo pakugwira mankhwala owopsa.

Chachiwiri ndikuti Spain ilibe chidwi ndi nzika zilizonse zomwe zitha kupanga biofuels Zofuna zachuma.

Mulimonsemo, mosakayikira ikuyimira kusinthana kwakusintha kwa mphamvu.


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  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
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  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.