Mitundu yazomera zamagetsi

zomera zamagetsi zamagetsi

Magetsi ndizochitika zachilengedwe zomwe zimatha kuchitika m'njira zosiyanasiyana kudzera m'mafakitale amagetsi. Funso la chiyambi cha magetsi si lophweka: kuti ligwiritsidwe ntchito ngati mphamvu, liyenera kuyenda ulendo wautali. Kumbali ina, mphamvu zawo zopangira ndi mlingo wokwanira, ndiko kuti, kuchuluka kwa magetsi omwe angapange kuchokera ku kutembenuka kwa mphamvu yoyamba, kudzadalira zipangizo zamakono ndi zamakono zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito. Ichi ndi chifukwa chake zomera zamagetsi zidzadalira mphamvu. Ku Spain, chachikulu mitundu yazomera zamagetsi Ndiwotentha, nyukiliya, mumlengalenga ndi dzuwa photovoltaic.

M'nkhaniyi tikuuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya magetsi omwe alipo komanso makhalidwe awo.

Mitundu yazomera zamagetsi

mitundu yazomera zamagetsi

Chomera chamagetsi chotentha

Ma turbines a zomerazi amayamba kusuntha chifukwa cha mpweya woponderezedwa womwe umapezeka mwa kutentha madzi. Zomera zamagetsi zamagetsi zimapanga magetsi m'njira zosiyanasiyana: pakati pawo kutentha

  • Zachikhalidwe: Amapeza mphamvu zawo powotcha mafuta oyaka.
  • Kuchokera ku biomass: Amapeza mphamvu zawo powotcha nkhalango, zotsalira zaulimi kapena mbewu zodziwika bwino zamphamvu.
  • Kuchokera pakuwotcha zinyalala zolimba zamatauni: Amapeza mphamvu powotcha zinyalala zomwe zakonzedwa.
  • malo opangira magetsi a nyukiliya: Amapanga mphamvu kudzera mu fission reaction ya maatomu a uranium. Kumbali ina, zotenthetsera madzi zimatenthetsa madzi mwa kuika mphamvu ya dzuŵa ndipo, potsirizira pake, zomera za m’nthaka zimagwiritsa ntchito kutentha kwa dziko lapansi.

makina opangira magetsi

Pamene mphepo ikugwira ntchito pazitsulo zamphepo, turbine yanu imayenda. Kuti muchite izi, chozungulira chokhala ndi masamba angapo chimayikidwa kumtunda kwa nsanja, chomwe chimalunjika ku mphepo. Amazungulira kuzungulira kopingasa komwe kumagwira ntchito pa jenereta. Ntchito yake imachepetsedwa ndi liwiro la mphepo, ndipo minda yamphepo imafuna malo akuluakulu. Ku Spain, kumbali ina, maola ogwiritsira ntchito magetsi opangira magetsi ali pakati pa 20% ndi 30% ya chaka, mtengo wotsika poyerekeza ndi magetsi otentha ndi nyukiliya, omwe amafika 93%.

Komabe, ziyenera kukumbukiridwa kuti ndi gwero lamphamvu lamphamvu ndipo kuyika uku sikuwononga chilengedwe. Famu yamphepo yomwe idayikidwa padoko la Bilbao ku Ponta Lucero idapanga 7,1 miliyoni kWh yamphamvu yamphepo ku Spain m'miyezi isanu yoyamba yogwira ntchito. Ndizopindulitsa kwambiri kuti mapaki awa amangidwe m'mphepete mwa nyanja, popeza mpweya umakonda kuyendayenda pophulika ndipo umakhala wokhazikika kuposa pamtunda.

magetsi a dzuwa

paki ya dzuwa

Pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya magetsi awa. Pakati pawo, zomera zopangira mphamvu za dzuwa zimagwiritsa ntchito kutentha kwa dzuwa kutenthetsa madzi ndikugwiritsa ntchito nthunzi yopangidwa ndi kutentha kusuntha ma turbines. Palinso zomera zopangira mphamvu za dzuwa za photovoltaic, kuyambira Maselo a Photovoltaic ali ndi udindo wotembenuza mphamvu ya dzuwa kukhala magetsi.. Ku Spain tili ndi mafakitale awiri ofunika: malo osungiramo photovoltaic Puertollano ndi Olmedilla de Alarcón. Onse ali ku Castilla-La Mancha.

fakitale yamagetsi yamagetsi

Ma turbines a zomera izi amayendetsedwa ndi kuthamanga kwa madzi othamanga kwambiri. Izi zimapezerapo mwayi pa mathithi, kaya achilengedwe, ndiko kuti, mathithi osagwirizana ndi mitsinje, kapena mathithi ochita kupanga ophatikizidwa m'madziwe. Kuwonjezera pa mphamvu zamagetsi ali okhoza kutulutsa, amagawidwanso kapena kugawidwa malinga ndi mphamvu zomwe ali nazo. Kumbali imodzi kuli zomera zazikulu zopangira magetsi amadzi, zopangira magetsi ang'onoang'ono opangira magetsi pamadzi komanso zopangira magetsi ang'onoang'ono.

malo opangira magetsi

Ntchito yake imakhala yofanana ndi mafakitale opangira magetsi opangira magetsi. Koma zimenezi zimapezerapo mwayi pa kusiyana kwa madzi a m’nyanja pakati pa mafunde okwera ndi otsika. Zomera zamphamvu za mafunde zimawonedwanso ngati zomwe zimapezerapo mwayi pakuyenda kwa mafunde kusuntha ma turbines. Kumbali inayi, palinso mafunde a m'nyanja, omwe amapezerapo mwayi mphamvu ya kinetic ya mafunde a m'nyanja kapena m'nyanja. Njirayi ilibe mphamvu zochepa za chilengedwe chifukwa palibe madamu omwe amamangidwa kuti asokoneze chilengedwe.

Momwe mitundu yamagetsi amagwirira ntchito

Malo opangira magetsi otenthetsera ndi malo opangira magetsi omwe cholinga chake ndikusintha mphamvu yamafuta kukhala magetsi. Kutembenuka uku kumachitika ndi nthunzi / kutentha kwa turbine yamadzi. Ndiko kuzungulira kwa Rankine. Pankhaniyi, gwero la nthunzi lidzatulutsa nthunzi yomwe imayendetsa turbine.

Mtundu umodzi wamagetsi otenthetsera mphamvu ndi kuzungulira kophatikizana. Pamalo ophatikizika ozungulira pali mikombero iwiri ya thermodynamic:

  • Chizungulire cha Breton. Kuzungulira uku kumagwira ntchito ndi turbine yamagetsi oyatsa, nthawi zambiri gasi.
  • Chizungulire cha Rankine. Uku ndi kuzungulira kwa turbine yamadzi a nthunzi wamba.

Pamafakitale onse opangira magetsi otenthetsera, pamafunika zinthu zitatu kuti apange magetsi:

  • makina opangira nthunzi. Ma turbines amasintha mphamvu yotentha kukhala mphamvu ya kinetic.
  • Alternator yomwe imatembenuza mphamvu zamakina mu mphamvu yamagetsi.
  • Transformer yomwe imasinthira zomwe zilipo posinthana ndi kusiyana komwe kungafune.

Kufunika kwa choyatsira nyukiliya

mitundu yazomera zamagetsi ku Spain

fusion reactor ndi malo omwe nyukiliya fusion imachitikira mumafuta opangidwa ndi hydrogen isotopes (deuterium ndi tritium), kutulutsa mphamvu ngati kutentha, komwe kenako imasanduka magetsi.

Pakali pano palibe ma fusion reactors omwe amatha kukolola magetsi, ngakhale malo opangira kafukufuku alipo kuti aphunzire momwe ma fusion amagwirira ntchito komanso ukadaulo womwe udzagwiritsidwe ntchito muzomera izi mtsogolo.

M'tsogolomu, ma fusion reactors agawidwa m'mitundu iwiri: omwe amagwiritsa ntchito kutsekeka kwa maginito ndi omwe amagwiritsa ntchito kutsekeka kwa inrtial. Magnetic confinement fusion reactor imakhala ndi izi:

  • Chipinda chochitira zinthu chomangidwa ndi khoma lachitsulo.
  • Kungoganiza kuti mafuta mu chipinda chochitiramo ndi deuterium-tritium, wosanjikiza wa zinthu zopangidwa ndi lithiamu zomwe zimatulutsa kutentha kuchokera kumakoma achitsulo ndikupanga tritium.
  • Zozungulira zina zazikulu zimapanga maginito.
  • Mtundu wa chitetezo cha radiation.

The inertial confinement fusion reactor idzaphatikizapo:

  • reaction room, zing'onozing'ono kuposa zam'mbuyomo, zimakhalanso zochepa ndi makoma achitsulo.
  • Kufunika kwa lithiamu.
  • Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pa atsogolere malowedwe a kuwala mtengo particles kapena ions kuchokera ku laser.
  • Kutetezedwa kwa radio.

Ndikuyembekeza kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mungaphunzire zambiri za mitundu ya zomera zomwe zilipo komanso makhalidwe awo.


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