Mitundu ya mitengo

nkhalango

Tikudziwa kuti mitengo ndiyofunikira kwambiri pamoyo wapadziko lapansi. Popanda mitengo sitingakhale ndi moyo popeza sipangakhale zamoyo zosiyanasiyana. Popeza tikudziwa kufunikira kwa zosiyana mitundu ya mitengo Zomwe zilipo, tiyenera kukhala ndiudindo kuti chilengedwe chizitha kupitiliza kugwira ntchito yake. Mitundu yamitunduyi idapanga nkhalango zazikulu zomwe ndizobisalapo nyama zambiri, kuteteza nthaka kuti isakokoloke komanso kuti mpweya uzikhala m'mlengalenga.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani mitundu yosiyana siyana yamitengo yomwe ilipo komanso kufunikira kwa umodzi uliwonse.

Makhalidwe amtundu wamitengo

mitundu ya mitengo

Tiyeni tiwone mikhalidwe yofunika kwambiri yomwe mitundu yambiri yamitengo imagwirizana. Chimodzi mwazinthu zofunika kuzilingalira posiyanitsa mitengo ndi mitundu ina yazomera ndikuti mitengo yawo yolimba kapena yolimba, yopyapyala komanso yofewa kuposa yobiriwira, ndi yolimba komanso yolimba.

Zitsamba zambiri zimakhalanso ndi mitengo ikuluikulu yokhala ndi izi, nthawi zambiri zimakhala zovuta kusiyanitsa zitsamba zazikulu ndi mitengo yaying'ono. Zikatero, kuwona nthambi za mbewu zingatithandize kwambiri. Ngati izi zinachokera pansi, tikhoza kukhala patsogolo pa tchire. Kumbali inayi, ngati nthambiyi iyamba kuwonekera pamtunda wina, mwina ndi mtengo chifukwa thunthu lake ndi lolimba.

Mitengo ndizomera zamitundumitundu, kutalika kwake kumatha kukhala kuchokera pamamita ochepa mpaka kupitirira 100 mita zimphona zenizeni. Makhalidwe otsalawo amatha kuwonedwa m'malo awo osiyanasiyana. Onse amagawana magawo akulu amtengo, kuphatikiza mizu, korona, thunthu, nthambi, ndi masamba.

Mizu imayambitsa kuyamwa madzi ndi michere. Mitengo ndi nthambi ndizoyang'anira ntchito yokonza ndi kuthandizira nthaka yonse pamwambapa, komanso posamutsa zinthu kudzera mwa iwo, masambawo amapanga photosynthesis, ndikupanga potero chakudya kuchokera ku dzuwa ndi mpweya ndi zinthu zomwe zimayamwa ndi mizu. Kumbali inayi, denga ndi gawo lonse lakumtunda kwa masamba ndi nthambi za mtengo ndi dome lake lamasamba. Shades the rest of the tree and amapereka bwino mpweya.

Mbali za mtengo

Mitundu ya mitengo yachilengedwe

Titha kunena kuti muzu umawoneka ngati muzu wamtengo. Komabe, kuzika mizu kumagwira ntchito zambiri kuposa kungokhazikitsa mtengo pansi. Mwachitsanzo, ali ndi udindo woyamwa madzi ofunikira pa moyo wa mitengo. Mizu imatha kukhala yayitali mamita ndi mulifupi. Nthawi zina, amatha kufalikira pansi.

Mitengo imakhalanso ndi mizu yambiri: kukula kwa mizu nthawi zambiri kumakhala kwakukulu ngati gawo la mtengo pamwamba panthaka. Izi ndizofunikira chifukwa muzu umathandizira kuthandizira mtengo. Kuphatikiza pa kupewa mitengo kugwa, ntchito yayikulu ya mizu ndikutunga madzi ndi michere m'nthaka ndikuzisunga pomwe palibe.

Dengali lili ndi masamba ndi nthambi kumtunda kwa mtengo. Dengalo limaphimba mizu, limatenga mphamvu kuchokera ku dzuwa (photosynthesis) ndipo umalola mtengowo kuchotsa madzi ochulukirapo kuti uziziziritsa (thukuta, lofanana ndi thukuta la nyama). Dengalo limabwera mosiyanasiyana.

Makungwawo ndi kapangidwe kamene kamagwirizira chisoti chamtengo. Makungwawo ali ndi udindo woteteza kamadzi kamene kamazungulira. Komanso, mothandizidwa ndi thunthu, mutha kudziwa zaka za mtengo, zomwe zimatengera kuchuluka kwa mphete zapachaka mkati.

Mphukira zimayambira kumapeto kwa thunthu, komwe kuli masamba amtengowo. Nthambi ndi masamba amapanga zotchedwa denga. Amapezeka munthambi. Nthambi zatsopano, maluwa, zipatso, kapena masamba amatha kumera kuchokera pa mphukira.

Mitundu yamitengo molingana ndi masamba ake

mitundu ya mitengo

Tsamba Lomwe Lagwa

Mitengo yodula mitengo ndi yomwe imasiya masamba m'nyengo yozizira, nthawi zambiri kugwa. Awa ndi makina omwe amateteza michere posasunga masamba omwe angawonongeke ndi chimfine, komanso chifukwa kumakhala kuchepa kwa dzuwa nyengo, mulimonse, singagwire bwino ntchito yake ya photosynthesis.

Zimakhala nyengo yozizira komanso youma m'nyengo yozizira, zimakonda kufika pamwamba kwambiri ndikukhala ndi moyo wautali.

Wobiriwira nthawi zonse

Mosiyana ndi mitengo yowuma, masamba obiriwira amasunga masamba ake nyengo yonse ndipo amasintha pang'onopang'ono ndikusintha chaka chonse. Conifers ndiye gulu lalikulu lazobiriwira nthawi zonse. Ngakhale kuti si okhawo, amadziwika kuti ndi mitengo yayitali kwambiri komanso yotalika kwambiri, monga bristlecone pine yomwe atha kukhala zaka zopitilira 5.000 komanso ma redwood am'mbali mwa nyanja omwe ali ndi zaka zopitilira 100. Mwambiri, ndi mitengo yolimbana kwambiri ndi nyengo yozizira kapena yovuta, monga mitengo yamapiri, pankhani ya ma conifers, kukula kwawo kokhala ngati kondomu kumakhala kotchuka kwambiri.

Mitundu ya zipatso ndi mitengo yokongola

Mitengo yambiri imachita bwino ndikubala zipatso, koma zipatso zokha zomwe anthu amadya monga zipatso ndi zomwe timazitcha mitengo yazipatso. Popeza ndikutanthauzira kosagwirizana ndi sayansi, titha kupeza kusiyana pazinthu zina, mwachitsanzo, pankhani ya mitengo yomwe imatulutsa zotchedwa mtedza amaonedwa ngati mitengo yazipatso kukhitchini, ndipo ogulitsa zipatso amawasiyanitsa.

Mitengo yokongoletsa ndi mitengo yomwe ili ndi mawonekedwe omwe amawapangitsa kukhala okongola kapena osangalatsa diso. Izi ndi mitundu yamtengo wapatali yomwe imakongoletsa minda kapena malo obiriwira, ndipo kusiyanasiyana kwawo kumangokhala zokonda za okonda kulima. Amasankhidwa chifukwa cha kukula ndi mawonekedwe, mtundu, kapena kuthekera kwawo kupirira nyengo zosiyanasiyana. Zachidziwikire, kaya mtengo umawerengedwa ngati wokongoletsa kapena ngati sunapatulidwe m'gulu lakale.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi izi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zamitengo yamitengo ndi mawonekedwe ake.


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