Mitundu ya batri

mitundu batire ndi ntchito

Pamsika titha kukhala osiyana mitundu ya mabatire kutengera mawonekedwe ake ndi zofunikira zomwe tikupatseni. Tikudziwa kuti mabatire si kanthu koma ma voltaic cell omwe amapatsa ogula mwayi wonyamula mphamvu zamagetsi kupita nawo kulikonse, malinga ngati zololeza.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zamabatire osiyanasiyana omwe alipo, mawonekedwe awo ndi momwe amagwiritsira ntchito.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

mitundu ya mabatire

Tiyeni tiwone zomwe mabatire ali ndi mawonekedwe akulu. Nthawi zambiri, mabatire amatha kupezeka patokha, ngakhale amalumikizananso motsatana komanso chimodzimodzi. Magulu awa mabatire azikhala ofanana ndi batri. Mawu akuti batri cell amagwiritsidwa ntchito mosasankha, ngakhale ali ofanana. Only, mizere yambiri silingathe kubwezeredwa kuchokera pomwe mabatire amatha.

Zokwanira zimatha kubwera m'mitundu yambiri, mawonekedwe, komanso kukula kwake monga momwe zimapangidwira ndi chinthu china. Chofunikira kwambiri m'moyo ndikapangidwe kamkati, ndipamene zimayambira ndi zomwe zimayambitsa magetsi. Mitundu iyi yamapangidwe amkati ndi yomwe imasiyanitsa wina ndi mnzake. Mwachitsanzo, pakati pa mabatire omwe timakonda kugwiritsa ntchito ndi mabatire amchere. Mapeto a zamchere amatanthauza sing'anga komwe kumasulidwa ndi kutuluka kwa ma elekitironi kumachitika. Chithunzichi ndichofunikira, ndiye kuti, ili ndi pH yoposa 7 ndipo imayang'aniridwa ndi anion ndi milandu ina yoyipa.

Gulu la mabatire

mawonekedwe a batri

Tiwone mitundu yamabatire osiyanasiyana kutengera momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito ndi mawonekedwe awo. Tidziwa zochitika zomwe padziko lonse lapansi zimawerengedwa ngati masheya oyambira komanso masheya achiwiri.

Mabatire oyambira

Mtundu uwu ndi womwe, ukamadyedwa, uyenera kutayidwa kapena kukonzanso. Ndipo ndizomwe zimachitikira mankhwala imathandizira mphamvu zamagetsi izi kuti sizingasinthe. Izi zimapangitsa kuti batire lisathe kubwezeretsanso. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka pakugwiritsa ntchito komwe kuli kosatheka kukonzanso mphamvu zamagetsi. Mwachitsanzo, tili ndi zida zankhondo pakati pankhondo. Amapangidwanso kuti azigwiritsa ntchito zida zomwe sizidya mphamvu zambiri, kuti zitha kukhala nthawi yayitali. Chitsanzo china chogwiritsa ntchito mabatire oyambira ndimayendedwe akutali ndi zotonthoza zonyamula.

Mabatire amchere ndi amtundu wa mabatire oyambira. Zowoneka bwino kwambiri zimakhala ndi mawonekedwe a cylindrical, ngakhale sizitanthauza kuti atha kukhalanso achiwiri kapena oyambiranso.

Mabatire achiwiri

Mosiyana ndi ma primaries, mtundu uwu umatha kubwezeredwa utatha mphamvu. Izi ndichifukwa choti zomwe zimachitika mkati mwawo zimasinthidwa kwathunthu. Mphamvu yamagetsi ingagwiritsidwe ntchito kwa iwo kuti ayambitsenso mtundu wa chinthu chomwe chimasinthiranso chojambuliracho. Mwanjira imeneyi zochita zamankhwala zimayamba.

Mabatire ena achiwiri amadziwika kuti mabatire ndipo nthawi zambiri amakhala ochepa kukula kwake. Komabe, apangidwira zida zomwe zimawononga mphamvu zambiri ndipo kugwiritsa ntchito mabatire oyambira sikungakhale kopindulitsa komanso kosawonongetsa ndalama. Mwachitsanzo, mabatire am'manja amakhala ndi achiwiri. Nthawi zambiri amapangidwira zida zazikulu kapena madera monga mabatire agalimoto omwe amapangidwa ndi mabatire angapo kapena ma voltaic cell.

Chomwe chimadziwika bwino ndikuti izi zikhala zodula kuposa zoyambira, koma pakapita nthawi zimangokhala njira yoyenera komanso yothandiza.

Zina

Kaya ndi mabatire oyambira kapena achiwiri, amagawidwa malinga ndi mawonekedwe omwe ali nawo. Chozungulira, chamakona anayi kapena batani kapena chimasankhidwa kutengera ndi chida chomwe adapangira. Apa timapeza makamera, magalimoto, ma calculator, ndi zina zambiri. Mbali ina ndi magetsi.  Amayambira 1.2 mpaka 12 volts ndipo monga moyo wawo wothandiza komanso mitengo imagawika magawo osiyanasiyana.

Mitundu ya batri

mabatire

Tiyeni tiwone mndandanda wa mitundu ya mabatire omwe alipo:

  • Mabatire a carbon-zinc: Ndiwo achikale kwambiri ndipo pakadali pano amawerengedwa kuti sakugwiritsidwa ntchito poyerekeza ndi mitundu ina. Poyerekeza ndi mabatire amchere, ali ndi mtengo wotsika, koma moyo waufupi komanso mphamvu yamagetsi yotsika. Amapangidwa ndi zinc ndi ndodo ya graphite.
  • Zamchere mabatire: Ndizofanana kwambiri ndi zam'mbuyomu, ndikosiyana komwe sing'anga komwe ma elekitirodi amakhala ndi OH- anions. 1Nthawi zambiri zimabwera mosiyanasiyana komanso zazikulu, ngakhale zofala kwambiri ndi 1.5 V. Ndizodziwika bwino pamsika wonse.
  • Mercury mabatire: ndi omwe nthawi zambiri amasokonezeka ndi batri ya dioxide ya siliva. Ndiwodziwika kwambiri pakapangidwe kapadera kabatani ka siliva. Amakhalanso amchere koma mercury oxide imaphatikizidwa kuphatikiza pa graphite ndi manganese dioxide. Zipangizo zing'onozing'ono monga mawotchi, makina owerengera, zida zoseweretsa, ndi zina zambiri zimapangidwa.
  • Siliva okusayidi: Vuto lalikulu lomwe mabatirewa amakhala nalo ndikuti akatayidwa amayimira vuto lalikulu pachilengedwe. Ndikuti chitsulo ichi chili ndi poizoni wamkulu. Silver oxide ndiokwera mtengo kwambiri kuposa mercury koma sichiipitsa pang'ono.
  • Faifi tambala-cadmium mabatire: Ichi ndi mtundu wa selo yachiwiri kapena batri. Monga mercury, ndizowononga chilengedwe chifukwa chachitsulo cha cadmium. Amadziwika ndikupanga mafunde okwera kwambiri ndipo amatha kupangidwanso kangapo. Amatha kubwezeredwa nthawi pafupifupi 2000, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zolimba kwambiri.
  • Faifi tambala-zitsulo batire hydride: Ndi china chodziwika bwino kwambiri kuposa onse am'mbuyomu mu mphamvu zamagetsi. Itha kuwonedwa pafupipafupi pama cylindrical akamagwiritsa omwe amakhala ndi batri. Ili ndi mawonekedwe ofanana ndi mabatire am'mbuyomu a cadmium koma imasiyana makamaka pama electrode ake olakwika. The cathode si cadmium, koma cholumikizira chophatikizana cha ma Earth osowa komanso zitsulo zosintha.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zamabatire osiyanasiyana, momwe amagwiritsira ntchito komanso mawonekedwe awo.


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