Mavitamini a nayitrogeni

ma nitrojeni m'munsi mu dna

Lero tikambirana maziko a nitrogenous. Ndi omwe ali ndi chidziwitso cha majini ndipo amapangidwa ndi ma purines awiri ndi ma pyrimidine awiri. Ma purine amadziwika kuti Adenine ndi Guanine, pomwe Pyrimidines amadziwika kuti Thymine ndi Cytosine. Troj mu fairies ndi ofunika kwambiri mu DNA ya munthu.

Chifukwa chake, tipereka nkhaniyi kuti tikuuzeni zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa za maziko a nitrogen, mawonekedwe ake ndi kufunikira kwake.

Zida za nyukiliya

dna kupeza

Tikamanena za ma nucleic acid timayang'ana ma biomolecule omwe ali omwe ali ndi chidziwitso cha majini. Ndi ma biopolymers omwe ali ndi kulemera kwamolekyulu kwambiri ndipo amapangidwa ndi timagulu ting'onoting'ono tomwe timakhala tomwe timadziwika kuti ma nucleotide. Tikafufuza kuchokera kuchipatala, ma nucleic acid ndi mamolekyulu akulu omwe amapangidwa ndi ma polima amtundu wa ma nucleotide. Ma polima onse omwe amalumikizidwa ndi zomangira za phosphate ester popanda nthawi.

Poterepa, ma nucleic acid adagawika deoxyribonucleic acid yomwe imapezeka ikukhala pachimake pamaselo ndi ma organelles ena ndi ribonucleic acid yomwe imapezeka mu cytoplasm. Zimapangidwa ndi maunyolo ataliatali a ma nucleotide omwe amalumikizidwa ndi magulu a phosphate. Palibe mtundu wa nthawi womwe wapezeka pakati pamaulalo awa. Mamolekyu akulu kwambiri amapangidwa ndi mamiliyoni mazana a ma nucleotide mumapangidwe amodzi obiriwira. Izi ndichifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa polymerization pakati pa ma nucleotide kumatha kukhala kwakukulu kwambiri.

Momwemonso, mapuloteni omwe timadya kuchokera ku chakudya nawonso ndi ma polima omwe amakhala munthawi yake chifukwa cha amino acid. Kuperewera kwa ma periodic kumapangitsa kukhalapo kwachidziwitso. Asayansi apeza kuti ma nucleic acid ndi malo osungira zinthu amino acid motsatizana amitundu yonse yamapuloteni. Amadziwika kuti pali kulumikizana pakati pa magawo onse awiriwa, omwe amafotokozedwa ponena kuti ma nucleic acid ndi mapuloteni ndi a kolinear. Kulongosola kwa kulumikizana konseku kumadziwika kuti nambala yakubadwa. Ma genetic ndi omwe amakhazikitsa dongosolo la ma nucleotide mkati mwa nucleic acid yofanana ndi amino acid mu protein.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti ndi mamolekyulu omwe ali ndi chidziwitso cha majeremusi a zamoyo ndipo amatsogolera kufalitsa kwawo.

Mavitamini a nayitrogeni

zomangira zapansi za nitrogen

Kudziwa kapangidwe ka ma nucleic acid kwatipangitsa kuti tidziwe zambiri zamtundu wamunthu. Chifukwa cha izi, tikudziwa makina ndi kuwongolera mapuloteni komanso njira yofalitsira chidziwitso cha majini kuchokera ku maselo am'magazi kupita kwa ana aakazi.

Apa ndipomwe kufunikira kwa maziko a nitrogenous kumayamba kubwera. Ndipo pali mitundu iwiri ya ma acid acid, monga tidanenera pamwambapa. Amangosiyana pakati pawo ndi shuga omwe amanyamula. Kumbali imodzi tili ndi deoxyribose ndipo mbali ina ribose. Amasiyanitsidwanso ndi ma nitrogenous base omwe ali nawo. Pankhani ya DNA, tili ndi adenine, guanine, cytosine, ndi thymine. Kumbali inayi, mu RNA tili ndi adenine, guanine, cytosine, ndi uracil. Kusiyanitsa ndikuti kapangidwe ka unyolo wama nitrogenous base ndi osiyana mu DNA ndi RNA. Ali mu DNA ndi zingwe ziwiri, mu RNA ndi chingwe chimodzi.

Kufotokozera ndi mitundu yazitsulo zopanda nitrogeni

Kapangidwe ka DNA

Tikudziwa kuti ma nitrogenous base ndi omwe amakhala ndi chidziwitso cha majini. Pomwe maziko a puric ndi pyrimidine ndi onunkhira komanso mosabisa. Izi ndizofunikira tikalingalira kapangidwe ka ma nucleic acid. Ndiyeneranso kukumbukira kuti mabakiteriya osungunuka samatha kusungunuka m'madzi ndipo amatha kukhazikitsa machitidwe ena pakati pawo ndi hydrophobic. Ndiye kuti, sangathe kulumikizidwa pamodzi.

Makhalidwewa omwe maziko a nitrogen amathandizira kukhazikika kwamitundu itatu ya ma nucleic acid omwe amapanga DNA. Nitrogeni mabesi nthawi zonse amatenga kuwala ndipo ikakhala mulingo wamagetsi wamagetsi wamagetsi pakati pama 250-280nm. Katunduyu wakhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kuyambira pomwe asayansi adazindikira kuti aphunzira ndikuwunika.

Maziko a puric amatengera mphete ya Purine. Zitha kuwoneka popeza ndi makina a ma atomu 9, 5 mwa iwo ndi kaboni ndipo 4 mwa iwo ndi nitrogen. Pulogalamu ya Adenine ndi Guanine amapangidwa kuchokera ku purine. Ma Pyrimidine nitrogenous maziko amachokera pa mphete ya pyrimidine. Ndi dongosolo lathyathyathya lomwe lili ndi ma atomu 6, 4 mwa iwo ndi ma carbons ndipo enawo awiri ndi ma nitrogen.

Mabungwe osinthidwa ndi ma nucleosides

Maziko a pyrimidine awonongeka kwathunthu ndi madzi, carbon dioxide ndi urea. Kuphatikiza pa maziko a purine ndi pyrimidine omwe takambirana, titha kupezanso zosintha zosintha. Maziko osinthidwa kwambiri ndi 5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, ndi 6-methyladenine, omwe amalumikizidwa ndi kuwongolera kwa DNA. Mbali inayi, ifenso tili nawo 7-methylguanine ndi dihydrouracil omwe ali gawo la kapangidwe ka RNA, popeza ali ndi uracil.

Zina mwazinthu zosinthidwa pafupipafupi ndi Hypoxanthine ndi Xanthine. Ndiwoyimira pakati pamagulu omwe amapangidwa ndi zomwe DNA imachita mutagenic.

Monga ma nucleosides, ndi mgwirizano wa pentose base womwe umachitika kudzera pagulu la glycosidic pakati pa kaboni wa ribose kapena deoxyribose ndi nayitrogeni wa nitrogenous base. Pankhani ya pyrimidines amamanga ndi nayitrogeni 1, pomwe mu purines amamangirira ndi nayitrogeni 9. Ziyenera kukumbukiridwa kuti mgwirizanowu mamolekyulu amadzi amatayika.

Asayansi amayesetsa kupewa chisokonezo m'maina a ma nucleosides ndi ma nucleosides motero, manambala omwe amatsatiridwa ndi chizindikiro amatchulidwa polankhula za ma atomu a pentose. Mwanjira imeneyi, imatha kusiyanitsidwa ndi ya nitrogenous base.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zama nitrogenous base ndi mawonekedwe awo.


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