Chomera chomera

mankhwala mankhwala

Madzi onyansa amapangidwa muzinthu zonse za anthu zomwe ziyenera kuthandizidwa. Ma WWTP ndiwo malo mankhwala mankhwala madzi ogwiritsidwa ntchito ndipo ali ndi udindo woyang'anira madzi awa. Ndi madzi omwe amachokera kuzinthu zomwe anthu amachokera m'mizinda, mafakitale, ulimi, ndi zina zambiri. Kuyika chiopsezo pachiwopsezo kuyambira pomwe kutayika ndi kutuluka kumatha kutulutsa poizoni omwe amayambitsa masoka achilengedwe.

Chifukwa chake, tikukuwuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa za malo opangira madzi.

Njira zochitira madzi

kapangidwe ka WWTP

Kuti madzi abwerere m'chilengedwe, ayenera kutsatira mankhwala angapo omwe cholinga chawo chachikulu ndikuwononga zinyalala. Mankhwalawa amasiyana kutengera mawonekedwe amadzi ogwiritsidwa ntchito komanso komwe amapita. Tikudziwa kuti madzi akuda amasonkhanitsidwa kudzera m'machubu zosonkhanitsa zomwe zimapangitsa kuti akafike kumalo opangira madzi akumwa. Apa ndipamene amapatsidwa mankhwala osiyanasiyana kuti athe kuyeretsedwa.

Pafupifupi nyengo zonse, madzi amakhala kuti amakhala maola 24-48 asanabwezeretsedwe. Njira iyi itha kukhala mtsinje, posungira kapena panyanja. M'mazomera amathandizidwa ndi mankhwalawa:

  • Chidziwitso: Zimakhala ndikuchotsa zolimba zazikulu zomwe zimapezeka m'madzi, monga mchenga ndi mafuta. Kukonzekera koyambirira kumeneku ndikofunikira kuti athe kukonza madziwo potsatira njira zake.
  • Chithandizo choyambirira
  • Chithandizo chachiwiri: Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pokhapokha ngati mukufuna kuyeretsa madzi kuti muwatsanulire m'malo otetezedwa. Chifukwa chokwera mtengo komwe amakhala nako, sizimachitika kawirikawiri.

Tifotokoza sitepe ndi sitepe njira zazikulu zomwe zimachitika muzomera.

Chithandizo chomera zimbudzi

mankhwala madzi

Chithandizo choyambirira

Amakhala ndi njira zina zamagetsi zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kuti muchepetse zomwe zimayimitsidwa m'madzi. Zambiri zolimba zomwe zayimitsidwa zomwe zimapezeka zimatha kukhala zosunthika kapena kuyandama. Zomwe zimakhala zolimba nthawi zambiri zimafika pansi patangopita nthawi yochepa, pomwe zotsalazo zimakhala tinthu tating'onoting'ono kwambiri mwakuti zimalumikizidwa kale m'madzi ndipo sizingayandikire matope anga. Pofuna kuthana ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono, pamafunika mankhwala ena ovuta kwambiri.

Njira zina zomwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochizira ndi izi:

  • Kutsekemera: ndiyo njira yomwe ma sedimentary particles amatha kugwera pansi chifukwa cha mphamvu yokoka. Pochita izi, zomwe ndizosavuta komanso zotsika mtengo, mpaka 40% ya zolimba zomwe zili m'madzi zitha kuthetsedwa. Mkati mwa chomera muli akasinja omwe amatchedwa decanters ndipo ndipamene zimayambira.
  • Kuyandama: Zimaphatikizapo kuchotsedwa kwa thovu, mafuta ndi mafuta popeza, chifukwa cha kuchepa kwawo, amakonda kukhazikika pamwamba pamadzi. Pochita izi ndikothekanso kuchotsa tinthu tating'onoting'ono totsika kwambiri. Kuti muchite izi, m'pofunika jekeseni thovu kuti likwaniritse kukwera kwawo ndikuchotsedwa. Ndi kusintha kumeneku, mpaka 75% yama particles olimba amachotsedwa. Izi zimachitika m'matangi ena omwe amatchedwa kuti kusungunuka kwa mpweya.
  • Kusalowerera ndale: ndi njira yomwe imakhala ndi pH yokhazikika. Izi zikutanthauza kuti madzi akuyenera kusinthidwa kukhala pH pakati pa 6-8.5. Pankhani ya madzi amchere okhala ndi acidic, malo opangira mankhwala amayenera kuwongolera kuchuluka kwazitsulo zolemera zomwe zimaphatikizidwa ndi zinthu zamchere kuti zikweze pH yamadzi. M'malo mwake, madzi amchere amakhala ndi carbon dioxide yamchere yambiri yomwe imayambitsidwa kuti ichepetse pH kukhala yofunikira.
  • Njira zina: ngati mukufuna kuyeretsa kwambiri madzi onyansa, njira zina zimagwiritsidwa ntchito monga kugwiritsa ntchito akasinja am'madzi, zigoba, zosefera zobiriwira kapena njira zina zamankhwala monga kusinthana kwa ion, kuchepetsa, makutidwe ndi okosijeni, ndi zina zambiri.

Chithandizo chachiwiri muzomera

Chithandizo chomera ndi chithandizo

Monga tanena kale, pokhapokha kuyerekezera pakufunika, chithandizo chachiwirichi sichimachitika m'malo opangira zimbudzi. Amakhala ndi njira zamoyo zomwe zimayesetsa kuthana ndi zinthu zomwe zilipo. Ndizochitika momwe mabakiteriya ena ndi tizilombo tina timagwiritsidwa ntchito kusandutsa zinthu zamoyo kukhala ma biomass amagetsi, mphamvu, mpweya ndi madzi. Ubwino wa chithandizo ichi kwa ena ndikuti ndi 90% yothandiza.

Mu yachiwiri mankhwala a zimbudzi zomera kusiyanitsa ena osiyana njira mu aerobic ndi anaerobic. Zoyambayo zili pamaso pa oxygen ndipo zomalizazi mulibe mpweya. Tiyeni tiwone zomwe ali:

  • Njira za aerobic: ndikofunikira kuyambitsa mpweya m'mathanki momwe ma stamens amalowa m'madzi owonongeka. Munthawi imeneyi kuwonongeka kwa zinthu zakuthupi kumachitika ndipo madzi ndi carbon dioxide amamasulidwa. Mankhwala a nitrogen monga ammonia, omwe ndi poizoni wochokera ku poizoni, amachotsedwa pano. Ngakhale nitrate ilibenso poizoni, ndi mawonekedwe omwe amatha kuphatikizika ndi zomera, chifukwa chake amatha kuyambitsa kuchuluka kwa ndere ndi michere. Njira yolimbikitsira michere iyi imadziwika kuti eutrophication.
  • Njira za Anaerobic: izi zimachitika pakapanda mpweya wabwino komanso momwe zimayambira zimachitika momwe zinthu zosinthika zimasandulika mphamvu, mpweya woipa ndi mpweya wa methane.

Tikamba za mankhwala ena omwe amachitika m'malo opangira mankhwala:

  • Yogwira sludge: Ndi chithandizo chomwe chimachitika pamaso pa mpweya ndipo chimaphatikizapo kuwonjezera zinthu zakuthambo ndi tizilombo tating'onoting'ono kuti tithe kusefa mpweya womwe zimachitika.
  • Mabedi a bakiteriya: Ndi njira yochitira masewera olimbitsa thupi ndipo imaphatikizapo kuyika zothandizira pomwe tizilombo tambiri ndi madzi otsalira amapezeka. Ndalama zochepa ndizowonjezedwa kuti athe kukhalabe ndi ma aerobic.
  • Zosefera zobiriwira: Ndi mbewu zomwe zimathiriridwa ndi madzi akuda ndipo zimatha kuyamwa mankhwalawo.
  • Chimbudzi cha Anaerobic: zimachitika m'matanki otsekedwa kwathunthu pakalibe mpweya. Apa mabakiteriya amagwiritsidwa ntchito omwe amapanga acid ndi methane akawononga zinthu zachilengedwe.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zamankhwala othandizira ndi mawonekedwe awo.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.

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