Mphamvu ya biofuel

Mphamvu ya biofuel

Pofuna kupewa kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta omwe amachititsa kuwonjezeka kwanyengo chifukwa cha za mpweya wowonjezera kutentha, tsiku ndi tsiku zambiri zimafufuzidwa ndipo mitundu ina ya mphamvu zowonjezera zimapangidwa monga mphamvu zowonjezereka zomwe timadziwa.

Pakati pa mphamvu zowonjezereka pali mitundu yambiri: dzuwa, mphepo, kutentha kwa madzi, ma hydraulic, zotsalira zazomera, ndi zina zambiri. Mphamvu ya biofuel Ndi mtundu wa mphamvu zongowonjezwdwa zomwe zimapezeka kudzera mu zinthu zakuthupi zomwe zimatha kusintha mafuta. Kodi mukufuna kudziwa zambiri zamafuta a biofuel?

Chiyambi ndi mbiri ya mphamvu ya biofuel

Chiyambi cha mphamvu ya biofuel

ndi biofuel Satsopano monga akukhulupirira, koma adabadwa pafupifupi mofanana ndi mafuta ndi injini zoyaka.

Zaka zoposa 100 zapitazo, a Rudolf Diesel adapanga injini yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito chiponde kapena mafuta a chiponde omwe pambuyo pake adakhala dizilo, koma popeza mafuta anali osavuta komanso otsika mtengo kupeza, mafuta amafuta awa anayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito.

Mu 1908 Henry Ford mu Model T yake adagwiritsa ntchito ethanol poyambira. Ntchito ina yosangalatsa panthawiyi ndikuti kampani yamafuta ya Standard kuyambira 1920 mpaka 1924 idagulitsa mafuta ndi 25% ya Mowa, Koma kukwera mtengo kwa chimanga kunapangitsa kuti mankhwalawa asayende bwino.

M'zaka za m'ma 30, Ford ndi ena adayesa kutsitsimutsa kupanga biofuel kotero kuti adapanga chomera cha biofuel ku Kansas komwe kumatulutsa pafupifupi 38.000 malita a ethanol patsiku kutengera kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka chimanga ngati chopangira. Pakadali pano, malo opitilira 2000 omwe adagulitsa izi.

M'zaka za m'ma 40, chomerachi chidayenera kutsekedwa chifukwa sichimatha kupikisana ndi mitengo ya mafuta.

M'zaka za m'ma 70 monga zotsatira za vuto lamafuta US ikuyambanso kusakaniza mafuta ndi mafuta a ethanol, ndikupatsa chidwi kwambiri ma biofuels omwe sanasiye kukula kuyambira pano mpaka pano mdziko muno komanso ku Europe.

Mpaka pakati pa zaka za m'ma 80, anthu anali akugwira ntchito ndikuyesera zoyambitsa za m'badwo woyamba komanso wachiwiri kutengera mbewu zokolola, koma magawo osiyanasiyana adatulukira omwe amachenjeza za kuopsa kogwiritsa ntchito chakudya kupanga mafuta.

Pokumana ndi izi, kusaka kunayambika kwa zinthu zina zopangira zomwe sizikukhudza chitetezo cha chakudya monga ndere ndi masamba ena omwe samadyedwa, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti pakhale mafuta a m'badwo wachitatu.

Biofuels adzakhala otsogola m'zaka za zana la XNUMXst chifukwa ndizachilengedwe kwambiri kuposa zakale.

Biofuel ngati mphamvu yowonjezeredwa

Zachilengedwe

Chiyambireni kusintha kwamakampani, anthu athandizira ndikulimbikitsa sayansi ndi ukadaulo ndi mphamvu zomwe zimachokera ku mafuta. Izi ndi mafuta, malasha ndi gasi. Ngakhale mphamvuzi ndizothandiza, mphamvuzi ndizochepera ndipo zikutha mofulumira. Kuphatikiza apo, kugwiritsa ntchito mafutawa kumatulutsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha mumlengalenga womwe umasunga kutentha kochulukirapo komanso kumathandizira kutentha kwanyengo komanso kusintha kwa nyengo.

Pazifukwa izi, akuyesera kuti apeze mphamvu zina zomwe zithandizira kuthana ndi zovuta zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi mafuta. Pachifukwa ichi, biofuels amawerengedwa ngati mtundu wa mphamvu zowonjezereka, Popeza amapangidwa kuchokera ku zotsalira zazomera. Zomera zotsalira, mosiyana ndi mafuta, sizitenga zaka mamiliyoni ambiri kuti zibereke, koma pamlingo woyendetsedwa ndi anthu. Biofuels amapangidwanso kuchokera ku mbewu zomwe zitha kubzalidwa.

Pakati pa biofuels tili Mowa ndi biodiesel.

Ethanol ngati biofuel

Mowa ndiye biofuel wodziwika kwambiri padziko lapansi. Amapangidwa kuchokera ku chimanga. Ethanol nthawi zambiri imasakanizidwa ndi mafuta kuti apange mafuta oyenera komanso otsukira kuti agwiritsidwe ntchito mgalimoto. Pafupifupi theka la mafuta onse ku United States ndi E-10, osakaniza 10% ya ethanol ndi 90% mafuta. E-85 ndi 85% ya ethanol ndi 15% ya mafuta ndipo amagwiritsidwa ntchito kupangira mafuta osinthira mafuta.

Momwe amapangidwira kuchokera ku chimanga, titha kunena kuti imapanganso, chifukwa minda ya chimanga ikupangidwanso. Izi zimathandizira kuti chikhale gwero losafooka ngati mafuta kapena malasha. Zimapindulitsanso kuti zimathandizira kutulutsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha, kuyambira nthawi yopanga chimanga, photosynthesis imachitika ndipo amatenga CO2 kuchokera mumlengalenga.

Zamgululi

Biodiesel

Biodiesel ndi mtundu wina wa biofuel womwe umapangidwa kuchokera ku mafuta amafuta atsopano komanso ogwiritsidwa ntchito komanso mafuta ena anyama. Biodiesel yakhala yotchuka kwambiri ndipo yafalikira padziko lonse lapansi chifukwa cha kuti anthu ambiri adayamba kupanga mafuta awo kunyumba kuti mupewe kuwononga ndalama zambiri pothira mafuta magalimoto anu.

Biodiesel itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'galimoto zambiri zoyendera dizilo popanda injini zambiri. Komabe, injini zakale za dizilo zingafune kukonzanso zina asanatenge biodiesel. M'zaka zaposachedwa kampani yaying'ono ya biodiesel yakula ku United States ndipo biodiesel ikupezeka kale m'malo ena othandizira.

Ubwino wogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya biofuel

Pali zabwino zambiri zomwe timapeza tikamagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya biofuel. Zina mwazabwino zomwe tili nazo:

  • Ndi mtundu wa mphamvu zowonjezereka ndipo umapangidwa kwanuko. Izi zimathandizira pakuwononga ndi kusungitsa ndalama, kuphatikiza pakuchepetsa kutulutsa kwa mpweya mumlengalenga.
  • Zimatithandiza kuchepetsa kudalira anthu pamafuta kapena mtundu wina wamafuta.
  • Kwa mayiko omwe samapanga mafuta, kupezeka kwa biofuel kumathandizira chuma, popeza m'malo ngati mafuta mitengo imangokwera.
  • Ethanol, pokhala oxygenate m'mafuta, imakulitsa kuchuluka kwake kwa octane, zomwe zimathandiza kuwononga mizinda yathu ndikuchepetsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha.
  • Mowa ili ndi muyeso wa octane wa 113 ndipo amawotcha bwino pamiyeso yayikulu kuposa mafuta. Izi zimapatsa mphamvu ma injini.
  • Ethanol imagwira ntchito ngati mafuta oletsa kuyimitsa injini, kuwongolera kuzizira kwa injini ndikuyamba kuzizira.
  • Pobwera kuchokera kuzinthu zaulimi, phindu la malonda limakulirakulira, kuwonjezera ndalama za anthu akumidzi.

Zoyipa zogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya biofuel

Kuwononga komwe kumatulutsa ethanol

Ngakhale maubwino ake ndiwodziwikiratu komanso abwino, kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya biofuel kumakhalanso ndi zovuta zina monga:

  • Mowa umawotcha 25% mpaka 30% mwachangu kuposa mafuta. Izi zimayambitsa kukhala ndi mtengo wotsika.
  • M'mayiko ambiri biofuel amapangidwa kuchokera ku nzimbe. Zogulitsazo zitasonkhanitsidwa, mizati yokolola imatenthedwa. Izi zimayambitsa mpweya wa methane ndi nitrous oxide, zomwe zimakulitsa kutentha kwanyengo, popeza ndi mipweya iwiri yotenthetsa chifukwa champhamvu yosunga kutentha. Chifukwa chake, zomwe timasunga pakupanga mbali imodzi, timatulutsa mbali inayo.
  • Mowa akapanga kuchokera ku chimanga, gasi kapena malasha amagwiritsidwa ntchito kutulutsa nthunzi popanga. Zowonjezera, Manyowa a nayitrogeni ndi herbicides amatayikira pantchito yolima chimanga yomwe imayipitsa madzi ndi dothi. Izi zitha kuthetsedwa pogwiritsa ntchito makina azachilengedwe kapena zinthu zachilengedwe. CO2 yochokera kuma distilleries itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito kupanga algae (yomwe itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito kupanga biofuels). Kuphatikiza apo, ngati pali mafamu pafupi, methane yochokera mu manyowa itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga nthunzi (makamaka izi ndizofanana ndi kugwiritsa ntchito biogas kupanga biofuel).

Monga mukuwonera, fayilo ya mphamvu ya biofuel ikupita patsogolo panjira yake ngati mphamvu yowonjezera yowonjezera. Komabe, pali kusintha ndi chitukuko zambiri zomwe zikuyenera kukhala gwero latsopano la magetsi pamagalimoto padziko lonse lapansi.


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