Mphamvu zamagetsi ku Spain

magwero obwezerezedwanso ku spain

Monga tikudziwa, ku Spain tili ndi kusakanikirana kwamagetsi kuti tikwaniritse zofunikira m'dziko lonselo. Pulogalamu ya magetsi ku Spain Ali ndi magwero osiyanasiyana ndipo amagawika m'magulu amagetsi omwe amatha kupitsidwanso komanso osapitsidwanso. Mwa mphamvu zoyambira timamvetsetsa pano popeza zimapezeka komwe zimachokera ndipo mphamvu zomaliza ndizo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito komwe mukupita.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zonse zomwe mukufuna kudziwa zamagetsi ku Spain ndi momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito osiyanasiyana.

Mphamvu zamagetsi ku Spain

magetsi

Mpaka pano, mafuta ndiye gwero lalikulu la mphamvu zoyambiranso ku Spain. Ndipo ndikuti mafuta amagwiritsidwa ntchito kukwaniritsa 42% ya zofunikira zonse mdzikolo. M'magetsi otsatirawa tingapezeko gasi, mphamvu za nyukiliya ndi malasha. Mphamvu zina zonse zimaperekedwa ndi mphamvu zowonjezereka. M'mbiri yonse yaposachedwa, zinali zotheka kuwona kuti, pamavuto azachuma omwe adakhudza Spain makamaka pakati pa 2008 ndi 2014, kuchepa kwamagwiritsidwe ntchito kwamagetsi kudawonekera.

Zamgululi mafuta

kupanga magetsi

Tidzawona momwe magwero akulu amagetsi ku Spain akukonzekera komanso momwe amagwirira ntchito polemekeza mafuta a mafuta. Kudzera mukuyenga mafuta, zinthu zotsatirazi zimapezeka: mafuta a petroleum (LPG), naphtha, mafuta, ethylene, propylene, palafini, dizilo, mafuta amafuta, phula, coke ndi mafuta opaka mafuta.

LPG (butane ndi propane) ndi gawo loyamba lomwe limachokera ku mafuta ndi distillation. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mafuta ophikira, madzi otentha komanso kutentha. Naphtha ndiye gawo lalikulu lazinthu zambiri monga mafuta ndi zosungunulira, komanso ndi zinthu zopangira ethylene ndi propylene. Mafuta amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mafuta pamagalimoto.

Ethylene ndi propylene ndi ma hydrocarboni omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mapulasitiki, ma resin, zosungunulira, ketoni ndi zotumphukira. Palafini ndi kaphatikizidwe kamene kamagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mafuta oyendetsa ndege ndipo, pambuyo pokonzanso, imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zosungunulira kapena mafuta otenthetsera. Dizilo imatsukidwa kudzera munjira zingapo ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito mu magalimoto, makina aulimi ndi usodzi, maboti ndi magalimoto ovomerezeka komanso muma boiler otentha, pakati pa ena. Mbali inayi, tirinso ndi mafuta amafuta, omwe ndi gawo lolemera kwambiri ndipo ntchito yake yayikulu ndimafuta a mafakitale.

Pomaliza, pazinthu zamafuta zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo osiyanasiyana ku Spain tili ndi phula. Ndi za zomangamanga zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamisewu, mayendedwe ndi madera. Amagwiritsidwanso ntchito ngati zida zotsekera madzi padenga ndi pansi.

Zowonjezera zopanda mphamvu ku Spain

magetsi ku Spain

Tipitilizabe kutchula mphamvu zamagetsi zomwe sizinapitsidwenso ku Spain komwe maziko ake ndi zopangira mafuta. Spain ili ndi zida zogawa mafuta zomwe zimapangitsa kukhala chizindikiro cha dziko lapansi. Compañía Logística de Hidrocarburos (CLH) imagwirizanitsa zolowa m'malo asanu ndi atatu pachilumba chomwe chimatulutsa zotumphukira zamafuta ku netiweki yake kudzera pa mapaipi amafuta a 4.020, Malo osungira 40 ndi ma eyapoti 28. Mapaipi awiri a Repsol amalumikizanso zoyengera za Cartagena ndi Puertollano.

Malo ogwirira ntchito a Enagás amathandizira kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa gasi wachilengedwe. Ili ndi malo okwanira asanu ndi awiri a LNG, malo anayi osungira mobisa, malo 19 opondereza, maukonde amapaipi achilengedwe okwana makilomita 11.000 komanso kulumikizana kwakumayiko sikisi komwe kumalola kutumizidwa ndi kutumizidwa kwa gululi. Palinso kulumikizana kochokera ku chilumba ndi zilumba za Balearic.

Zosintha zakumwa posachedwa zikuwonetsa mavuto azachuma omwe adakhudza dziko lathu kuyambira 2008 mpaka 2014. M'zaka ziwiri zapitazi, mafuta akumwa agwa kuchoka pa matani 6,3 mpaka matani 4,6 miliyoni ndipo kugwiritsa ntchito dizilo kwatsika kuchoka matani 35,4 kufika matani 28, matani 4 miliyoni. Mu 2015, momwe kumwa kumawonjezeka, zinthu zidasintha.

Mwa zinthu zonse zopangidwa ndi mafuta, mafuta a petulo ndi omwe achepetsa kuchepa kwa kagwiritsidwe ntchito, popeza mzaka zaposachedwa Spain yakhala ikukula pakukopa alendo akunja ndipo njira zake zoyendera ndizoyendetsa ndege.

Mavuto azachuma pantchito yomanga ndi ntchito zaboma adakhudza kupanga phula. Mafuta a petroleum amadzimadzi (butane ndi propane) akupitilizabe kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi nyumba kapena kutentha m'malo omwe mpweya wachilengedwe sukufikako.

Mphamvu zamagetsi zaku Spain

Gawo lamagetsi ku Spain limatanthauzidwa kuti ndikukhazikitsa kwa magetsi m'gawo lake komanso kusiyanasiyana kwa magwero azopanga chifukwa cha kukhazikitsidwa kwa gasi ndi mphamvu zowonjezeredwa monga zida zazikulu kuyambira koyambirira kwa zaka zana lino.

Chomera chopangira magetsi chimakhala m'mabeseni a mitsinje yayikulu ku Spain. Kupezeka kwa madzi kumathandizanso pakupanga makina opanga magetsi ndi zida za nyukiliya. Zomera zoyambirira za malasha zinali m'mabeseni amakala am'malo otchedwa peninsular kumpoto chakumadzulo ndi chigawo cha Teruel, pambuyo pake zidayikidwa pagombe. Mafuta agwira ntchito yofunika kwambiri ndipo asowa pachilumbachi, koma ndizofunikira kwambiri ku Ceuta, Melilla ndi zilumba za Balearic.

Kupezeka kwa mapaipi amafuta ambiri kumathandiza kuti pakhale makina opangira magetsi ku Ebro Valley. Mwanjira iyi, zoyendera zamagetsi ndizochepa.

Kapangidwe kazakapangidwe kazaka zamagetsi kuchokera ku mphamvu zowonjezeredwa nthawi zambiri zimakhala zosintha chifukwa zimakhudzidwa ndi madzi ndi mphepo. Izi ndizochitika mu 2015: mphamvu ya mphepo (51,4%), mphamvu yama hydraulic (29,7%), mphamvu ya dzuwa ya photovoltaic (8,4%), mphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi (5,5%) ndi magwero ena obwezeretsanso mphamvu (5%). Red Eléctrica de España imagawira ntchito yopanga zida zazikulu zamagetsi ku Spain kumadera omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kudzera pamizere yayitali yomwe ikupezeka ku Spain konse ndi kutalika kwa makilomita 43.660.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zamagetsi ku Spain ndi mawonekedwe awo.


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  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.