Zomwe zili, momwe zimapangidwira komanso mafuta amagwiritsa ntchito bwanji

Mafuta osakongola

Mafuta ndi gawo la moyo wathu. Zonse popanga mphamvu komanso mafuta amitundu yonse yamagalimoto, zida, ndi zina zambiri. Ndi popanga mapulasitiki. Ndi kampangidwe kamene kamapezeka muzinthu zambiri m'moyo wathu watsiku ndi tsiku kuposa momwe timaganizira. Komabe, kodi tikudziwa mafuta ndi chiyani? Munkhaniyi tiuza chilichonse chokhudza mafuta kuchokera momwe amapangira, momwe amapangira ndi momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito mdera lathu.

Kodi mukufuna kudziwa zambiri za izi? Pitilizani kuwerenga chifukwa timakuwuzani chilichonse 🙂

Kodi mafuta amapangidwa bwanji ndipo amapangidwa bwanji?

Kutulutsa mafuta

Ndi mafuta amchere omwe ali ndi mtundu wakuda kapena wakuda kwambiri. Imakhala yocheperako poyerekeza ndi yamadzi ndipo, chifukwa chake, pakagwa tsoka ngati kutchuka, mafuta amakhalabe akuyandama m'madzi. Ili ndi fungo labwino lomwe opitilira mmodzi angakopeke nalo. Amapangidwa ndi chisakanizo cha ma hydrocarboni okhala ndi mpweya, nayitrogeni ndi sulfa mosiyanasiyana. Kampaniyi imangopezeka m'matanthwe a sedimentary popeza mapangidwe ake amakhala pamenepo.

Amapangidwa kudzera mu zopangira zomwe amapangidwa zotsalira za zamoyo zomwe zimagawidwa m'madzi, kumtunda ndi pazomera. Nyama zonsezi ndi zomera zomwe zidafa zidasiya kapangidwe kake ndikuchititsa manyazi zomwe zimabweretsa zomwe tikudziwa lero ngati mafuta. Zotsalira zamoyozo zaukiridwa ndi zochita za mabakiteriya a anaerobic omwe amawononga mpweya wonse ndikusiya ma molekyulu a kaboni ndi haidrojeni omwe alipo. Ichi ndichifukwa chake amapangidwa ndi ma hydrocarbon okha.

Kupsyinjika komwe kumachitika chifukwa cha zidutswa zomwe zili pamwamba pamunsi mwa Dziko lapansi zimayambitsa Kuthamangitsidwa kwa madzi onse omwe amapezeka m'malo omwe amapezeka sedimentary. Madzi awa ndi omwe timawadziwa ngati mafuta. Pambuyo pakuchita ndi kukakamizidwa kwamiyala ya sedimentary, imatha kuyenda makilomita makumi angapo m'malo otsetsereka pomwe imapeza mwala wa pore womwe ungalowe m'mabowo. Thanthwe ili pomwe madzi amasungidwa ndikusungidwa amatchedwa mwala wosungira.

Ndipamwala uwu wosungira komwe kumatulutsidwa mafuta onse omwe amati ndi osakongola.

Mafuta osakongola

Malo opangira mafuta m'nyanja

Pompopompo omwe timati mafuta osakongola ndimasakanikidwe a ma hydrocarboni ndi mitundu ina yokhala ndi ma atomu 40 kaboni. Hydrocarbon yosavuta yomwe imapangidwa ndi methane, yopangidwa ndi kaboni imodzi ndi ma atomu anayi a hydrogen. Izi ndi zopanda pake chifukwa zimachokera pathanthwe losungiramo katundu Ilibe mafakitale kapena mafuta. Ndikofunikira kuyiyika pokonzanso. Chizindikiritso chodziwika bwino cha mafuta osakonzeka ndimphamvu zake zamphamvu.

Kuyenga ndi ntchito yomwe imakhala ndi kagawo kakang'ono ka distillation ka zinthu zonse. Chifukwa cha izi, zinthu zosiyanasiyana zitha kupezeka, kutengera kutentha komwe kumapangidwa. Mwachitsanzo, zina mwazinthu zomwe zimapezeka pamatenthedwe osiyanasiyana ndi ethane, methane, butane, propane, zomwe zimatulutsa mpweya; zinthu zamadzimadzi monga mafuta, mafuta a mafuta ndi palafini; ndi zinthu zolimba monga phula ndi parafini.

Zogulitsa zonse ziyenera kukhala ndi kutentha kosiyanasiyana pakupanga kwawo. Chifukwa chake, Mafuta amagwiritsidwa ntchito kangapo, osati pamakampani opanga mphamvu zokha, komanso m'makampani opanga mankhwala.

Pofuna kuti zisakhudze mizinda kapena madera achilengedwe, malo opangira mafuta ndi minda yamafuta ili kutali kwambiri ndi malo omwe amawotchera. Mafuta osakonzedwa amanyamulidwa chifukwa cha mapaipi omwe amapezeka pachitsime momwe amapitidwira ku fakitale yoyandikira kwambiri. Pali nthawi zina pomwe zopanda pake zimayenera kunyamulidwa ndi nyanja. Nthawi izi, sitima zamagalimoto kapena mafuta amafuta amagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Kuyendetsa zinthuzi kunyanja kungayambitse masoka ena chifukwa cha ngozi. Tangoganizirani kuti ngalawa yonyamula zopanda pake igunda mwala ndipo mafuta onse atulutsidwa. Zovuta zomwe zimabweretsa panyanja ndizambiri. Zingakhudze madzi komanso zamoyo zomwe zimakhala m'derali.

Ntchito zazikulu

Mafuta ndi chiyani?

Popeza mafuta amakhala ndi zinthu zambiri kutengera kutentha komwe kumayeretsedwako, palinso ntchito zambiri zomwe zingakhale nazo. Ntchito yoyamba ndi mafuta apanyumba kapena ogulitsa mafakitale. Ndani analibe botolo la butane kunyumba kapena wagwiritsa ntchito mtundu wina wa mbaula ya parafini.

Ntchito ina ndi monga mafuta ndi mafuta. Ambiri mwa mafuta zamagalimoto onse padziko lapansi amapangidwa ndi mafuta. Kutengera mtundu wamagalimoto ndi injini, imodzi yoyengedwa kapena ina imapangidwa kuti igwire ntchito m'malo osiyanasiyana.

Mafuta amagwiritsidwanso ntchito ngati zopangira zofunikira pamsika wama petrochemical. Ndiwo maziko azinthu zonse zapulasitiki padziko lapansi. Matumba apulasitiki amapangidwa kuchokera ku mafuta. Kuphatikiza apo, pulasitiki yamtundu uliwonse imachokera ku mafuta.

Pofuna kukhutiritsa kufunikira kwa msika, njira zina zakhazikitsidwa zomwe zimathandizira kusintha kapangidwe kazinthu zambiri zomwe zimapezeka pakuyenga kuti mitundu ina yazinthu zomwe anthu ambiri akufuna. Kusintha izi timapeza njira monga akulimbana ndi polymerization.

Pakuphwanyaphwanya, molekyulu yolemera yomwe ili ndi maatomu ambiri a kaboni yathyoledwa ndikupanga mamolekyulu opepuka. Mwachitsanzo, kuchokera pamafuta amafuta mitundu ina ya mipweya ndi mafuta imatha kupezeka. Kumbali inayi, kudzera polima, ma molekyulu angapo omwe amapezeka mgulu losavuta lotchedwa monomer amatha kulumikizidwa kuti apange ma molekyulu ovuta komanso okulirapo otchedwa ma polima. Tili ndi chitsanzo cha ethylene kuti apange polyethylene. Polyethylene ndizopangira ma tetrabricks.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mukudziwa zambiri zamafuta ndi momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito pamsika.


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