Kodi mafuta adzatha liti

mafuta atatha

¿Kodi mafuta adzatha liti? Ili ndi funso lomwe tonse tidadzifunsa nthawi inayake m'miyoyo yathu. Mafuta ndi mafuta omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi popanga magetsi komanso m'malo ena ambiri. Malo osungira mafuta ndi ochepa ndipo tsopano dziko lapansi lilibe nthawi yowabwezeretsanso monga anthu. Kutha kwa mafuta akalewa kuli ndi nkhawa zaumunthu.

Chifukwa chake, tipereka nkhaniyi kukuwuzani kuti mafuta adzatha liti komanso zotsatirapo zake.

Makhalidwe a mafuta

Kuchulukitsa mafuta

Ndikosakanikirana kwama hydrocarbon ambiri osiyanasiyana mumadzi. Amapangidwa ndi zodetsa zina zazikulu ndipo amagwiritsidwa ntchito kupeza mafuta osiyanasiyana ndi zinthu zina. Petroli ndi mafuta ochokera ku zidutswa zam'madzi, nyama ndi zomera. Zamoyozi zimakhala m'nyanja, m'nyanja komanso mkamwa pafupi ndi nyanja.

Mafuta adapezeka munyuzipepala zaku sedimentary. Izi zikutanthauza kuti zinthu zomwe zapangidwa ndizopangidwa ndikutchinga. Zakuya komanso zakuya, chifukwa cha kuthamanga kwa dziko lapansi, zimasandulika ma hydrocarboni.

Izi zimatenga zaka mamiliyoni. Chifukwa chake, ngakhale mafuta amapangidwa mosalekeza, kuchuluka kwake kwakapangidwe kake sikofunikira kwa anthu. Zowonjezera, kuchuluka kwamafuta omwe agwiritsidwa ntchito ndi okwera kwambiri mpaka tsiku loti latha. Pakapangidwe ka mafuta, mabakiteriya a aerobic amayamba kugwira ntchito ndipo mabakiteriya a anaerobic amapita mozama. Izi zimatulutsa mpweya, nayitrogeni, ndi sulfure. Izi zimatulutsa mpweya, nayitrogeni, ndi sulfure. Zinthu zitatuzi ndi gawo la mankhwala osakanikirana a hydrocarbon.

Dothi likapanikizika mopanikizika, thanthwe limapangidwa. Pambuyo pake, chifukwa chakusamuka kwa mafuta, mafuta adayamba kufalikira m'miyala yolowa kwambiri komanso yolowera. Miyala iyi amatchedwa 'miyala yosungira'. Mafuta amatsamira pamenepo ndikukhalabe m'menemo. Mwanjira imeneyi, njira yochotsera mafuta imachitika kuti ipange mafuta.

Kodi mafuta adzatha liti

pomwe mafuta adatha ndi zomwe zingachitike

Pamene "Mad Max" adatulutsidwa mu 1980, lingaliro lokhudza kutha kwa dziko lapansi komwe kusowa kwamafuta kungasinthe dziko lapansi sikuwoneka ngati nthano zopeka zasayansi. Mavuto a Mel Gibson paulendowu akuwonetsa kuwopa dziko lenileni, chifukwa chakukwera kwamitengo yamagetsi, kuwotcha zitsime ku Iran ndi Iraq chifukwa cha nkhondo komanso zoletsa.

Komabe, Mad Max anali kulakwitsa. Mtsuko womaliza wamafuta wowotchedwa padziko lapansi sudzawononga mamiliyoni a madola ndipo mtengo wake udzakhala zero. Ino sikhala nthawi yomaliza, chifukwa zatha, koma chifukwa palibe amene akufuna nthawi ina. Ndi funso m'zaka za zana la makumi awiri kudandaula kuti mafuta adzatha liti. Mu XXI, funso latsopano ndiloti tikufuna kupitiliza kuigwiritsa ntchito mpaka liti.

Kuopa kwakukulu kwamafuta pakadali pano kukuzungulira nthawi yofunika kwambiri yomwe mapangidwe apamwamba (mafuta apamwamba) ndikucheperachepera.

Popeza mbiya yoyamba yamafuta idatengedwa ku Pennsylvania (United States) mu 1859, kufunika sikunasiye kukula. Kodi chimachitika ndi chiyani ngati zitsime zomwe zidalipo zatha? Ichi ndiye chowopsa kwambiri padziko lapansi. Mafuta athandiza padziko lapansi kwa zaka 150, koma mwina sangakhale injini yake yazachuma zaka khumi kuchokera pano.

Ngakhale OPEC, gulu lanthano la mayiko omwe amatumiza mafuta, ivomereza kuti kuchuluka kwakukulu kukuyandikira, ndiko kuti, kuchuluka kwa mafuta kumawonjezeka ndipo kumatha. Zomwe sizinagwirizane ndi zomwe zinali.

Kutulutsa mafuta

kutha kwa mafuta

Zomwe zikusintha malamulo amasewera ndikutsogola kwaposachedwa kwambiri kwamatekinoloje. Choyamba, chifukwa amalola kutulutsidwa kwa nkhokwe ndi kugwiritsa ntchito ma hydrocarbon osagwirizana m'madzi akuya kwambiri, ndichifukwa chake kutha kwa mafuta omwe ali pafupi kwambiri akuyandikira kwambiri. Zowonjezera, Kupanga magwero ena amagetsi kumawapangitsa kuti azigwira bwino ntchito. Malinga ndi akatswiri, pamapeto pake adzasinthira mafuta akale.

OPEC ikukhulupirira kuti kutsika kwa zofuna zapadziko lonse lapansi pambuyo pa 2040 ndichomwe chidzachitike mtsogolo. Ngakhale adazindikira kuti ngati mayiko ambiri atenga nawo mbali pothana ndi kusintha kwanyengo komwe adagwirizana pamsonkhano waku Paris, pofika 2029, mutha kufika pamtunda wapamwamba posachedwa. Pazomwe zakhala zikuchitika, adaneneratu kuti kugwiritsidwa ntchito padziko lonse lapansi kukakwera kuchoka pa migolo 94 miliyoni patsiku kufika pa migolo 100,9 miliyoni patsiku mzaka khumi zokha, kenako kuyamba kuchepa.

Kafukufuku wa bungwe loteteza zachilengedwe ali ndi chiyembekezo ndipo amapititsa patsogolo zofuna zawo mpaka 2020. Malinga ndi kuwerengera kwake, Mphamvu ya dzuwa idzaimira 23% yazopezeka padziko lapansi mu 2040 ndipo ifika ku 29% mu 2050.

Komabe, kusintha kumeneku sikuchitika mwadzidzidzi. Mafuta amafunikirabe 31% yamafuniro amagetsi oyambira padziko lonse lapansi (pomwe mphamvu zowonjezeredwa, kuphatikiza mphamvu zamagetsi zamagetsi ndi zotsalira zamafuta, zimangokhala 13%), kotero kuti kusowa kwake sikuchitika mwadzidzidzi. Makampani omwe ali mumakampani awa komanso mayiko omwe akutulutsa akukonzekera dziko latsopano losiyana kwambiri ndi lomwe tikudziwa.

Mitengo yamafuta yakhazikika pakati pa $ 60 mpaka $ 70 mbiya ndipo sizokayikitsa kuti ingakwere. Vuto lina lalikulu ndi mtengo. Kutengera kuvomereza pamsika, sikukhala kwakukulu kuposa momwe ziliri pano, kapena mwina sikudzawona $ 100 yokwera zaka zitatu zapitazo. Malire apamwamba apamwamba ali pafupifupi US $ 60/70 pa mbiya, chifukwa kuchokera pamenepo, kufinya kwa ma hydraulic ndi migodi yamadzi akuya yomwe imakhudza mayiko omwe amapanga miyambo amakhala opindulitsa. Kuphatikiza apo, ngati mtengo wama hydrocarboni upitilira malire apamwamba, ndalama zopezera mphamvu zamagetsi zina zidzalimbikitsidwanso ndipo kufunika kudzatsika.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za nthawi yomwe mafuta adzathe komanso kufunika kwake.


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  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
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  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.