Madzi a haidrojeni

madzi wa hydrogen

Chinthu chosavuta kwambiri chopezeka m'chilengedwe chonse ndi haidrojeni. Amapezeka mu mawonekedwe a mpweya mu nyenyezi ndi mapulaneti komanso ndi mbali ya mankhwala osiyanasiyana ndi organic mankhwala monga madzi. The madzi wa hydrogen itha kukhala ndi ntchito zina zosangalatsa m'magawo osiyanasiyana amakampani.

Chifukwa chake, tipereka nkhaniyi kuti tikuuzeni zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zamadzimadzi a hydrogen, mawonekedwe ake komanso momwe amapezera.

Kuchuluka kwa haidrojeni

hydrogen padziko lapansi

haidrojeni imayimira zoposa 70% za zinthu zowoneka m'chilengedwe, zomwe zimapangitsa kukhala chinthu chochuluka kwambiri. Angapezeke pakati pa nyenyezi zazing'ono, m'mlengalenga wa mapulaneti akuluakulu a mpweya (monga Jupiter ndi Venus), monga momwe zimakhalira padziko lapansi, komanso ngati gawo la zikwi zambiri za zinthu zachilengedwe ndi zachilengedwe. Zotsatira zake, njira zambiri zamoyo zimatsutsa.

Pali ma isotopu angapo a haidrojeni (maatomu a chinthu chomwecho, koma okhala ndi ma neutroni osiyanasiyana):

  • Protium (1H). Wopangidwa ndi ma protoni, palibe ma neutroni mu mtima. Ndilo mtundu wodziwika kwambiri wa haidrojeni.
  • Deuterium (2H). Ndiwolemera kuposa haidrojeni wamba, ndipo phata lake lili ndi neutroni imodzi ndi pulotoni imodzi.
  • Tritium (3H). Lili ndi ma neutroni awiri mu nyukiliyasi pafupi ndi pulotoni, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ikhale yolemera.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

madzi a hydrogen yosungirako

Titha kufotokozera molingana ndi mawonekedwe amadzimadzi a hydrogen:

  • Kuwira kwachepa, zomwe zingayambitse chisanu kapena hypothermia. Zingayambitsenso kupuma movutikira komanso kupuma movutikira.
  • Chifukwa cha kutentha kwa hydrogen yamadzimadzi, imatha kupanga ayezi ikakumana ndi chinyezi mumlengalenga, zomwe zimatha kutsekereza ma valve ndi kutseguka kwa matanki anu osungira.
  • Imasanduka nthunzi mosalekeza ndikupanga haidrojeni, yomwe iyenera kutsukidwa ndi kuchepetsedwa mosamala kuti zisasakanizike ndi mpweya wokhazikika mumlengalenga, kuyatsa ndi kuphulika.
  • Kuchulukana kwa nthunzi wambiri kumatha kupangitsa kuti mtambo womwe wapangidwawo uziyenda mopingasa kapena kutsika ngati hydrogen yamadzimadzi yatuluka.

Ndizofunikira kudziwa kuti pali njira zingapo zopangira ma haidrojeni omwe amagwiritsa ntchito zida zosiyanasiyana komanso mphamvu. Potengera zinthu izi, tinganene kuti mu gawo linalake 100% njira zongowonjezwdwa zimapangidwa, 100% zotsalira kapena zosakanikirana. Kuphatikiza apo, amatha kuchitidwa m'malo apakati ndi mayunitsi ang'onoang'ono pafupi ndi malo ogwiritsira ntchito. Choncho, mphamvu zimatha kupezeka ngakhale kumadera akutali.

Momwe Hydrogen Yamadzimadzi Amasungidwira

thanki yagalimoto yokhala ndi nayitrogeni wamadzimadzi

Kupangitsa kuti haidrojeni yamadzimadzi ikhale yopindulitsa pazachuma ndikukwaniritsa kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwake kofala kumadutsa posungirako hydrogen yokwanira molingana ndi zosowa zomwe zilipo pamayendedwe ake otsatizana ndi kugawa kuchokera pamalo opangira mpaka kudyedwa.

Tiyenera kuzindikira kuti machitidwe ndi mikhalidwe yomwe haidrojeni iyenera kusungidwa idzadalira ntchito yomaliza. Mwa njira iyi tikhoza kusiyanitsa:

  • Makina osungira haidrojeni, oyenera ntchito zamakampani ndi zapakhomo kapena zogawa zopangira magetsi. Pankhaniyi, pali pafupifupi palibe zoletsa ponena za dera lotanganidwa, kulemera, voliyumu kapena kugwiritsa ntchito machitidwe othandizira.
  • Koma, makina osungira ma hydrogen pamagalimoto amapereka zochepa kuti atsimikizire kuti magalimoto ali ndi mitundu yofanana ndi magalimoto achikhalidwe. Kuphatikiza apo, pali zofunikira zogwirira ntchito komanso zamphamvu za hydrogen, zomwe zimatha kusinthidwa kuphatikiza ndi ma cell amafuta mumitundu yonse yamagalimoto.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti gawo la mayendedwe ndi limodzi mwa magawo ofunikira kwambiri pakugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu padziko lonse lapansi, makamaka m'maiko otukuka. Izi zapangitsa kuti bizinesi yamagalimoto ikhale imodzi mwazinthu zazikulu zoyendetsera kupita patsogolo kwamafuta amafuta, haidrojeni ndi matekinoloje awo osungira.

Momwemonso, polankhula za mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya kusungirako gasi ili, ndikofunikira kuwonetsa kufunikira kowonjezera chitetezo chake, chifukwa ndi. zoyaka kwambiri, zopanda poizoni, zopanda mtundu, zosakoma komanso zosakoma. M'lingaliro limeneli, mndandanda wa makina osungiramo zinthu umaphatikizapo zotheka mu gawo la kafukufuku, monga carbon (yogwira, graphite, molecular carbon beds, nanofibers, fullerenes ...), mankhwala (NH3), magalasi a galasi ndi zeolites.

Kumbali inayi, kusungirako kutentha kochepa mu mawonekedwe amadzimadzi ndi kusungirako kutentha kochepa mu mpweya woponderezedwa kapena chitsulo cha hydride zatsimikizira kuti ndizodalirika ndipo zingagwiritsidwe ntchito mosamala.

Kugwiritsa ntchito ndi kugwiritsa ntchito hydrogen yamadzimadzi

Chifukwa chaukadaulo komanso maphunziro osiyanasiyana pamadzi a haidrojeni, amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'mafakitale osiyanasiyana. Ziyenera kukumbukiridwa nthawi zonse kuti zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati gwero lamphamvu komanso loyera lamagetsi lomwe siliipitsa chilengedwe. Zina mwazinthu zosangalatsa kwambiri ndi zamakampani opanga mphamvu, zoyendera, mafakitale azakudya, makampani opanga ndege ndi malo oyeretsera. Tikupita mwatsatanetsatane za kagwiritsidwe ntchito ndi kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka hydrogen yamadzimadzi.

Kuchita bwino kwake kumapangitsa kuti ikhale mpweya wabwino kwambiri woziziritsira mafakitale, makamaka chifukwa cha ntchito yake yabwino yotengera kutentha. Kugwiritsa ntchito hydrogen ngati mafuta ena kumatsimikizira kudziyimira pawokha kwagalimoto, pomwe kumachepetsa mpweya woipa, motero kumathandizira kuteteza chilengedwe.

Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa mpweya umenewu kumafuna kupititsa patsogolo ubwino ndi chitetezo cha chakudya kudzera mukupanga umisiri wamakono. Ndi mafuta abwino opangira ma roketi komanso ndi gwero la mphamvu zochirikizira moyo ndi makina apakompyuta m'malo ammlengalenga. Ndilo gawo lalikulu lamakampani posinthira mafuta ochulukirapo kukhala mafuta oyengedwa.

Kugwiritsa ntchito haidrojeni ngati mafuta kumakhala ndi zotsatira zabwino zingapo pa chilengedwe. Tikuwonetsa zofunikira kwambiri:

  • Ndi mphamvu yoyera, kusiya nthunzi yamadzi yokha ngati chotsalira. Choncho, ndi bwino kuwononga chilengedwe kuposa mafuta oyaka.
  • Ndizosatha.
  • Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zosiyanasiyana, kuchokera kumakampani kupita kumayendedwe kapena mabanja.
  • Lolani kusungirako kwakukulu ndi mayendedwe.
  • Ndiwothandiza kwambiri kuposa magetsi. Mwachitsanzo, galimoto yamafuta a hydrogen imakhala yokwanira mphindi 5 ndipo imakhala yofanana ndi galimoto yoyaka.

Ubwino wonsewu umapangitsa haidrojeni kukhala gwero lamphamvu, laukhondo komanso lotetezeka, zomwe ziyenera kuganiziridwa m'mafakitale ambiri.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zamadzimadzi a hydrogen.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

Khalani oyamba kuyankha

Siyani ndemanga yanu

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa. Amafuna minda amalembedwa ndi *

*

*

  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.