Ma cellulosic biofuels

Ma cellulosic biofuels

Pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya biofuels yomwe imachokera kuzinthu zopangira zomwe zimatha kusinthidwa. Lero tikambirana ma cellulosic biofuels. Mafuta amtunduwu amachokera ku zotsalira zaulimi zomwe zikukula mwachangu, matabwa ndi udzu zomwe zimatha kusandulika kukhala mitundu ya biofuels kuphatikiza ma jet.

M'nkhaniyi tikufotokozera zomwe ma cellulosic biofuels ali komanso mawonekedwe ake.

Kodi ma cellulosic biofuels ndi ati?

Cellulose

Kwa anthu amasiku ano zikuyenera kuwonekeratu kuti tiyenera kutuluka munyengo yamafuta. Kudalira mafuta akalewa kumabweretsa chiopsezo ku dziko, zachuma kapena chitetezo cha chilengedwe. Komabe, njira zamakono zachuma siziletsa kugwiritsa ntchito izi mafuta. Kuti tipeze magwero atsopano a mphamvu zowonjezereka, ndikofunikira kupeza wothandizila watsopano wokhoza kuyendetsa magalimoto apadziko lonse lapansi, chifukwa ndiye gwero lalikulu la mpweya wowonjezera kutentha mumlengalenga.

Mutha kutaya mafuta kuchokera ku chilichonse chomwe chakhala masamba. Am'badwo woyamba amachokera kuzinthu zodyedwa, makamaka chimanga ndi soya, nzimbe ndi beets, pakati pa ena. Ndiwo zipatso zomwe zili pafupi kwambiri m'nkhalango yomwe ingakhale ndi mafuta chifukwa njira zofunikira zomwe zimafunikira kuti zizichotsere zimayambira.

Ziyenera kunenedwa choncho biofuels awa si yankho lolimba pakapita nthawi. Malo olimapo omwe alipo ndi oyenera ndipo biofuels okha ndi omwe atha kupangidwa kuti akwaniritse 10% yamafuta amafuta amayiko otukuka kwambiri. Mwa kufuna kukolola kwakukulu, chakudya cha ziweto chimakhala chodula komanso pamitengo ya zinthu zina, ngakhale sizochuluka kapena monga atolankhani mungakhulupirire zaka zingapo zapitazo. Zotulutsa zonse zomwe zili mu mbadwo woyamba wa biofuels zikawerengedwa, sizothandiza m'malo momwe timafunira.

Kutulutsa mpweya wotentha

Nzimbe

Kubwezeretsa kumeneku kwa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha mumlengalenga pakati pa kuyamwa ndi kupanga kumatha kuchepetsedwa ndikugwiritsa ntchito mafuta am'badwo wachiwiri omwe amachokera kuzinthu zama cellulosic. Zipangizo za cellulosic ndi izi: zotsalira zamatabwa monga utuchi ndi zotsalira zomanga, ulimi monga mapesi a chimanga ndi mapesi a tirigu. Timapezanso mbewu zamagetsi, ndiye kuti, mbewu zomwe zimakula mwachangu komanso zimakhala ndi gasi kapena wobzalidwa makamaka kuti apange biofuels.

Ubwino waukulu womwe mbewu zolimazi zili nawo ndikuti zimawononga zochepa panthawi yopanga. Zochuluka kwambiri ndipo sizimakhudza kupanga chakudya, zomwe ndizofunikira kuzikumbukira. Zomera zambiri zamagetsi zimatha kubzalidwa kumtunda komwe sikugwiritsidwe ntchito kulima. Zina mwa mbewu zazing'onoting'ono zosintha msondodzi zimatha kuipitsa nthaka ikamakula.

Kupanga ma cellulosic biofuels

Zinthu zakuthupi

Kuchuluka kwa zotsalira zazomera kumatha kukololedwa mosadukiza kuti apange mafuta. Pali maphunziro ena omwe amatsimikizira kuti, ku United States, matani osachepera 1.200 miliyoni a ma cellulosic biomass amatha kupangidwa pachaka popanda kuchepetsa mabakiteriya omwe anthu amadya, ziweto zawo ndi kutumizidwa kunja. Ndi ichi malita opitilira 400.000 miliyoni a biofuels amatha kupezeka pachaka. Ndalamayi ndiyofanana ndi theka la mafuta omwe akugwiritsidwa ntchito pachaka ku mafuta ndi dizilo ku United States.

Izi zotsalira zotsalira zimatha kusintha mtundu uliwonse wa biofuel: Mowa, mafuta wamba, dizilo ngakhalenso mafuta a ndege. Mitengo yambewu ya chimanga ndiyosavuta kuyidula kusiyana ndi mapesi operekedwa ndi mapadi, koma kupita patsogolo kwakukulu kwachitika posachedwa. Akatswiri opanga mankhwala ali ndi makompyuta amtundu wambiri amtundu wamakompyuta omwe amapezeka kuti amange nyumba zomwe zitha kuwongolera mayendedwe atomiki. Kufufuza kumeneku cholinga chake ndikukulitsa posachedwa njira zosinthira pabwalo loyeretsera. Nthawi yamafuta yama cellulosic tsopano titha kumvetsa.

Kupatula apo, cholinga chachilengedwe cha mapadi ndikupanga kapangidwe ka mbewu. Kapangidwe kameneka kali ndi timiyala tokhwima ta mamolekyulu otsekedwa omwe amathandizira pakukula mozungulira komwe kumalimbana ndi kuwonongeka kwachilengedwe. Pofuna kutulutsa mphamvu yomwe cellulose ili nayo kuti amasule mfundo yomwe imapangidwa ndi chisinthiko.

Njira zopangira mphamvu zamagetsi kudzera pama cellulosic biomass

Njirayi imayamba ndikuphwanya zotsalira zazing'ono kukhala mamolekyulu ang'onoang'ono. Mamolekyu amenewa amakonzedwanso kuti akhale ndi mafuta. Njirazi nthawi zambiri zimagawidwa ndi kutentha. Tili ndi njira zotsatirazi:

  • Njira yotsika kwambiri: Njirayi imagwira ntchito ndi kutentha pakati pa 50 ndi 200 madigiri ndipo imapanga shuga omwe amatha kuthira mu ethanol ndi mafuta ena. Izi zimachitika mofananamo ndi chithandizo chamakono chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chimanga ndi nzimbe.
  • Njira yotentha kwambiri: Njirayi imagwira ntchito kutentha pakati pa 300 ndi 600 madigiri ndipo mafuta a bio amapezeka omwe amatha kutsukidwa ndikupanga mafuta kapena dizilo.
  • Njira yotentha kwambiri: Njirayi imagwira ntchito kutentha kuposa madigiri 700. Pogwira ntchitoyi mpweya umapangidwa womwe ungasanduke mafuta amadzimadzi.

Pakadali pano, sichikudziwika kuti ndi njira iti yomwe ingasinthe kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zosungidwa kuchokera pamafuta amafuta pamtengo wotsika kwambiri. Njira zosiyanasiyana zimayenera kutsatiridwa pazinthu zosiyanasiyana zama cellulosic biomass. Chithandizo cha kutentha kwambiri kumatha kukhala koyenera kuthengo, pomwe kutentha kotsika kungakhale bwino kwa udzu. Zimangodalira kuchuluka kwa zinthu zomwe ziyenera kuchepetsedwa kuti apange biofuel.

Mwachidule, ma cellulose amapangidwa ndi ma carbon, oxygen, ndi maatomu a hydrogen. Mafuta, mbali yake, amapangidwa ndi kaboni ndi hydrogen. Kutembenuka kwa selulosi kukhala biofuels, ndiye, ndikuchotsa mpweya kuchokera ku cellulose kuti upeze mamolekyulu amphamvu yamagetsi omwe amangokhala ndi kaboni ndi haidrojeni.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zama cellulosic biofuels.


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  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.