Kutulutsa mawu

eutrophication of water ndi njira yachilengedwe koma yopangidwa ndi anthu

Kodi mukudziwa kuwululidwa kwa madzi? Pali mavuto ambiri azachilengedwe okhudzana ndi kuipitsa madzi. Timatanthauzira kuipitsa madzi Como kutayika kwa chilengedwe cha madzi ndi kapangidwe kake chifukwa cha zinthu zakunja, kaya zachilengedwe kapena zopangira. Pali mitundu yambiri ya zowononga zomwe zimatha kusintha, kusintha ndikusokoneza mawonekedwe amadzi. Chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa madzi, imasiya kugwira ntchito m'zinthu zachilengedwe ndipo siyikumwanso kwa anthu, kuwonjezera pokhala poizoni.

Mwa mitundu ya kuipitsa madzi yomwe ilipo lero tikambirana kutulutsa mawu. Kutulutsidwa kwa madzi m'thupi ndi njira yachilengedwe yam'madzi, yopangidwa ndi kukhathamiritsa kwa michere yopangidwa ndi zowonjezera zakuthupi Kutulutsidwa m'mitsinje ndi nyanja chifukwa cha zochita za anthu. Kodi kutha kwamadzi kumabweretsa mavuto otani kwa anthu komanso zachilengedwe?

Tanthauzo la madzi

Ubwino wamadzi umakhazikitsidwa ndi Dongosolo Lamadzi Amadzi

Kuyamba kulankhula za kutulutsidwa kwa madzi (monga tanena kale, ndi mtundu wa kuipitsa madzi) tiyenera kutanthauzira, malinga ndi malamulo apano, madzi ndi abwino.

Timalongosola zaubwino wamadzi monga magawo azinthu zakuthupi, zamankhwala komanso zachilengedwe zomwe madzi awa amapereka komanso zomwe ali nazo zomwe zimalola moyo wa zamoyo zomwe zimakhala mmenemo. Pachifukwa ichi, iyenera kukhala ndi mawonekedwe angapo:

  • Khalani opanda zinthu komanso tizilombo toyambitsa matenda omwe ndi owopsa kwa ogula.
  • Khalani opanda zinthu zomwe zimakupatsani mawonekedwe osasangalatsa (mtundu, kuzizira, kununkhiza, kulawa).

Kuti tidziwe momwe madzi alili, tiyenera kuyerekezera magawo omwe tapezedwa titawasanthula mu labotore ndi miyezo ina yamadzi. Izi zimayendetsedwa ndi Directive 2000/60 / EC ya Nyumba Yamalamulo ku Europe ndi Khonsolo, yomwe imakhazikitsa dongosolo lachitetezo pamadzi, chodziwika bwino monga Malangizo Amadzi. Directive iyi ikufuna kukwaniritsa ndikukhalitsa malo abwino azachilengedwe ndi madzi.

Kutulutsidwa kwa madzi kumadzi

Nyanja ndi mitsinje yomwe ili ndi madzi okhaokha ndiodetsedwa

M'zaka 200 zapitazi, munthu wafulumizitsa njira yodulira eutrophication, ndikusintha mtundu wamadzi komanso kapangidwe ka magulu azachilengedwe omwe amakhala mmenemo.

Eutrophication imatulutsa kukula kwakukulu kwa microalgae amene amadaya madzi obiriwira. Mtunduwu umapangitsa kuti dzuwa lisalowe m'munsi mwa madzi, chifukwa chake nderezo pamalopo sizilandila kuwala kuti zikwaniritse photosynthesis, zomwe zimabweretsa kufa kwa ndere. Imfa ya ndere imabweretsa chopereka chowonjezera cha zinthu zakuthupi kuti malowo akhale ovunda komanso malo ocheperako (izi zikutanthauza malo okhala ndi mpweya wochepa).

Zotsatira zakuwonongeka kwamadzi

nyama ndi zomera zimafa potulutsidwa

Pakakhala eutrophication, madzi amataya mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito komwe amapangidwirako ndipo amathandizanso kufa kwa nyama, kuwonongeka kwa madzi ndikukula kwa tizilombo (makamaka mabakiteriya).

Kuphatikiza apo, nthawi zambiri, tizilombo tating'onoting'ono timakhala pachiwopsezo ku thanzi la anthu, monga momwe zimakhalira ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tomwe timapezeka m'madzi.

Eutrophication imasintha mawonekedwe azachilengedwe zam'madzi Kusintha unyolo wazakudya ndikuwonjezera entropy (chisokonezo) cha chilengedwe. Izi zili ndi zotsatirapo monga kutayika kwa zachilengedwe zosiyanasiyana, kusalinganizana kwachilengedwe, popeza ndi mitundu yochepa yolumikizana, chuma ndi kusiyanasiyana zimachepa.

Dera likangotaya chilengedwe kapena zamoyo zosiyanasiyana, mitundu yomwe ili ndi mwayi wochulukirapo imachulukana, ndikukhala m'malo omwe kale anali mitundu ina. Zotsatira zachilengedwe zakukomedwa kwamadzi zimatsatiridwa ndi Zotsatira zachuma. Kutayika kwa madzi akumwa komanso kukhazikika kwa mitsinje ndi nyanja kumabweretsa mavuto azachuma.

Magawo a kutulutsidwa kwamadzi

Kutulutsidwa kwamadzi sikuchitika nthawi yomweyo, koma kumakhala ndi magawo angapo monga tionera pansipa:

Gawo la Oligotrophic

siteji yokhala ndi michere yofunikira pamoyo

Izi nthawi zambiri zimakhala zachilengedwe komanso zathanzi. Mwachitsanzo, malo okhala mitsinje, yomwe imakhalapo ndi michere yokwanira yosamalira nyama ndi zomera zomwe zimakhala mmenemo komanso zowala bwino kuti nderezo zitha kujambula mkati mwake.

Pa gawo la oligotrophic madzi amakhala ndi chiwonetsero chowonekera komanso mmenemo pali nyama zomwe zimapuma komanso kusefa mpweya.

Zakudya zopatsa thanzi

kutulutsa komwe kumayambitsa zowonjezera zowonjezera zakudya

Kupeza zakudya zosazolowereka kumatha kukhala kwanthawi yochepa chabe, ngozi kapena kukhala chinthu chopitilira nthawi. Ngati nthawi ndi nthawi pamakhala kutaya komwe kumayambitsa michere yochulukirapo mumitsinje, zamoyo zimatha kukhalanso bwino. Komabe, ngati chakudya chowonjezera chimayamba kupitilira, Kukula kophulika kwa mbewu ndi ndere kuyamba.

Pali ma algae omwe amakhala amtundu umodzi omwe amakula m'madzi, m'mbali mwake momwemo. Popeza kuti ndi ulusi wa photosynthetic, amapatsa madzi utoto wobiriwira womwe umalepheretsa kuwunika kuzama komwe kudafika kale. Izi zimabweretsa vuto kuzomera zomwe zili pansipa, chifukwa chosapeza dzuwa lokwanira, sangathe kujambula zithunzi ndi kufa.

Kuphatikiza apo, chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa michere, kuchuluka kwa zomera ndi ndere zimakula kwambiri ndipo, monga zachilengedwe zonse, chilengedwe sichimasweka. Tsopano zinthu zikuwoneka motere: zakudya zambiri kwa anthu ambiri. Komabe, izi sizingapitirire kwa nthawi yayitali, makamaka chifukwa anthu amachotsa michere ndipo pamapeto pake amafa ndikubwerera kumunsi kwa mtsinje kapena nyanjayo.

Gawo la Eutrophic

gawo pomwe kukula kwa ndere kumakhala kwakukulu

Zinthu zakufa zomwe zili pansi zimawonongeka ndi mabakiteriya omwe amadya mpweya komanso amathanso kupanga poizoni wakupha zomera ndi nyama.

Kupezeka kwa mpweya kumapangitsa kuti mollusks pansi afe ndipo nsomba ndi crustaceans zimafa kapena kuthawira m'malo omwe sanakhudzidwe. Mitundu yodziwika bwino yomwe imazolowera kuperewera kwa mpweya imatha kuoneka (mwachitsanzo, barbels ndi nsomba zingachotse nsomba ndi nsomba zam'madzi).

Ngati kutulutsa mawu kumatchulidwa kwambiri, malo opanda mpweya amatha kupangidwa kumunsi kwa mtsinje kapena nyanja momwe madzi ndiwothinana kwambiri, amdima komanso ozizira ndipo salola kukula kwa ndere kapena nyama.

Zimayambitsa eutrophication wa madzi

Kutulutsidwa kwa madzi kumatha kuchitika m'njira zosiyanasiyana, zachilengedwe komanso zaumunthu. Pafupifupi milandu yonse yodula madzi padziko lonse lapansi imayambitsidwa ndi zochita za anthu. Izi ndizomwe zimayambitsa:

Agriculture

Kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza wa nayitrogeni mopitirira muyeso

Mu ulimi iwo ntchito feteleza wa nayitrogeni kuthirira mbewu. Manyowawa amadutsa padziko lapansi ndikufikira mitsinje ndi madzi apansi panthaka, ndikupangitsa kuti madzi azipeza chakudya chowonjezera m'madzi ndikupangitsa kuti eutopic iwonongeke.

Mtundu wa eutrophication wopangidwa ndiulimi umafalikira kwathunthu, popeza kuzama kwake kumafalikira m'malo ambiri ndipo si onse ofanana.

Kulera ng'ombe

Ndowe za ziweto zitha kuyambitsa eutrophication

Zitontho za nyama zimakhala ndi michere yambiri, makamaka nayitrogeni (ammonia) yomwe zomera zimagwiritsa ntchito kukula. Ngati ndowe za ziweto sizikuyendetsedwa bwino, zimatha kuipitsa madzi oyandikira.

Nthawi zambiri kutuluka kapena kuipitsidwa kwa madzi pafupi ndi ziweto zimachitika munthawi yake ndipo samatulutsiratu madziwo.

Zinyalala zam'mizinda

Mankhwala a phosphate amapereka zowonjezera zowonjezera ku algae

Zinyalala zamatawuni zomwe zimatha kuyambitsa kuwonongeka kwa madzi ndi zotsukira mankwala. Phosphorus ndi ina mwa michere yofunikira pazomera, chifukwa chake ngati tiwonjezera phosphorous m'madzi, chomeracho chimakula kwambiri ndikupangitsa kuti eutrophication ichitike.

Ntchito zamakampani

mafakitale amapanganso kutuluka kwa nitrogeni

Zochita zamafuta zitha kukhalanso gwero la michere yomwe ingathe kutulutsa magwero ena amomwe mawu amathandizira kutulutsa mawu. Pankhani yamakampani, zinthu zonse za nitrogenous ndi phosphate zimatha kutulutsidwa, pakati pa poizoni wina ambiri.

Monga eutrophication chifukwa cha zinyalala zam'mizinda, imasunga nthawi kwambiri, imakhudza madera ena mwamphamvu ikamachitika.

Kuwonongeka kwa mlengalenga

mtsinje eutrophied

Sikuti mpweya wonse wowonjezera kutentha umatha kuyambitsa eutrophication m'madzi. Komabe, mpweya wa nitrogen oxide ndi sulfure womwe umachitika mlengalenga ndikupanga mvula yamchere.

30% ya nayitrogeni yomwe imakafika kunyanja imatero kudzera mumlengalenga.

Ntchito za nkhalango

kusamalira nkhalango molakwika kumatha kubweretsa kuwonongeka kwa mawu

Ngati zotsalira za m'nkhalango zatsalira m'madzi, zikawonongeka zimapatsa nayitrogeni wonse ndi zakudya zina zonse zomwe chomeracho chinali nacho. Kachiwirinso ndi zowonjezera zowonjezera zomwe zimapanga eutrophication.

Kutulutsidwa kwa madzi ndi vuto lapadziko lonse lapansi lomwe limakhudza magwero onse amadzi abwino. Ndi vuto lomwe liyenera kuthetsedwa mwachangu, popeza chilala chidzakula ndipo tiyenera kuteteza zitsime zonse zamadzi zomwe zilipo padziko lapansi.


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  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.

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