Kusamala kwamankhwala

mankhwala omwe amachititsa kufanana

Mu chemistry malingaliro ambiri amapangidwa kuti kusamala kwa mankhwala. Ndi boma lomwe kusintha kwamankhwala kumatha kubwereranso mosinthika ndipo momwe mulibe kusiyanasiyana kwa magwiridwe antchito ndi zinthu zomwe zimakhudzidwa ndi zomwe zimachitika. Mgwirizano wamankhwala amadziwika ndi kukhala wamphamvu komanso wosakhazikika. Izi zikutanthauza kuti mamolekyulu ndi maatomu onse amapitilizabe kuchita mosalekeza koma amakhala ndi magawo omwewo.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani chilichonse chomwe mukufuna kudziwa za kuchuluka kwa mankhwala ndi kufunikira kwake.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

kusamala kwa mankhwala

Tikamayankhula za kufanana kwa mankhwala, tikukamba za zofanana ndi zomwe zimachitika pakadachitika kusintha. Kusintha kwa bowa sikungakhale kulumikizana. Tiyeni tipereke chitsanzo: timagwiritsa ntchito madzi omwe amatha kukhala ofanana ndi nthunzi zake, monga cholimba. Timakhazikitsa mgwirizano pomwe olimba amathanso kukhala olingana ndi madzi oyandikana nawo akakhazikika kapena kupindika.

Kusamala kwa mankhwala ndikofunikira m'makampani opanga mankhwala. Mwanjira iyi, kukonza kaphatikizidwe ndi zokolola kumatha kupezeka. Mgwirizano wamankhwalawo ukakhazikitsidwa, palibe zosintha kapena mayankho omwe angapezeke pokhapokha mgwirizanowu usokonezedwe. Nthawi zambiri, imasokonezedwa ndi zochita zakunja. Umu ndi momwe kaphatikizidwe ka malonda amasinthidwa ndi magawo angapo monga kuthamanga, voliyumu kapena kutentha. Ngati tikusewera mosalekeza ndimikhalidwe yam'magawo awa kumapeto kwake timakwaniritsa kuti muyeso umapangidwa pomwe ungafikire pazambiri.

Kupanda kutero, ngati sitikuwerengera bwino, kuchuluka kwa mankhwala simudzakhala ndi zinthu zambiri ndipo sizingakhale zokhutiritsa. Ndiye kuti, izikhala ndi zokolola zochepa ndipo sizingatheke pazachuma. Zonsezi ndizothandiza kwambiri ngati titazisungitsa kumakampani opanga mankhwala ndi kaphatikizidwe kalikonse mosasamala kukula kwake. Zachidziwikire, tifunika kukhathamiritsa zokolola malinga ngati pali zochulukirapo.

Mukuyanjana kwa mankhwala kumatha kukhala ndi zinthu zambiri kapena zochulukirapo. Izi zimadalira komwe mayikowo achoka. Ngati tilingalira pazinthu zonse, titha kusunthira kufanana kwa mankhwala mbali iliyonse. Tiyenera kukumbukiranso kuti kusintha kwa mayendedwe kumatha kuchitika bola ngati kusintha kwa mankhwala kungasinthe.

Malongosoledwe amtundu wamankhwala

mankhwala zimachitikira

Tifotokoza momwe zimachitikira komanso zomwe zimafunikira kuti tikwaniritse kufanana kwa mankhwala. Chinthu choyamba ndikuwona zomwe zimabwera kale. Tilingalira zotsatirazi zomwe zingasinthidwe kwathunthu. Apa tili ndi nayitrogeni tetraoxide yomwe imasandulika 2 timadontho ta nitrogen dioxide. Onsewo ndi mpweya. Mpweya woyamba womwe ndi reagent ulibe mtundu, pomwe wachiwiri umakhala ndi bulauni kapena bulauni. Tikaika ma reagents ena mumtsuko kapena chidebe chaching'ono, Tidzawona kuti lilibe mtundu mpaka mankhwalawa atakhazikika.

Kuchuluka kwa ma reagents kumayamba kuchepa pang'onopang'ono momwe zimachitikira pakapita nthawi. Gawo lina limatha kudzipatula kuti lipangitse ma molekyulu a nitrogen dioxide. Ngakhale kuchuluka kwa zomwezo kuli kofanana ndi zero kumayambiliro ake, zimayamba kuchuluka pomwe reagent iyamba kulekana.

Komabe, tikulankhula za kusintha kwa mankhwala, kotero kuti gawo la mamolekyulu azinthuzo aphatikizana kuti apange ma reactants. Izi zikutanthauza kuti zonse zowongoka komanso zosintha zidzakhala ndi kuthamanga kwawo.

Zomwe zimachitika pamankhwala ofanana

mankhwala zimachitikira

Tiyeni tiwone kufunikira kwakuti kuchuluka kwa mayankho kumakhala ndi kuchuluka kwa mankhwala. Kumayambiriro tiyenera kudziwa kuti kuchuluka kwa zakumwa za reagents kudzakhala kwakukulu kuposa kuchuluka kwa zakumwa. Mwanjira iyi, pachiyambi, popeza pali nitrogen tetraoxide yokhayo, mamolekyulu ochepa omwe apangidwa ndi nitrogen dioxide sangathe kupeza kuti achite mosiyana. Titafika mphindi imeneyo yazomwe zimachitika, mumtsuko mutha kuwona momwe zimayambira kutembenukira ku lalanje popeza muli ndi zosakaniza zamagetsi ndi zinthu nthawi yomweyo.

Pang'ono ndi pang'ono, momwe mankhwala amapangidwira, ma molekyulu azogulitsazo azikhala ochulukirapo kuposa mamolekyulu amakanikira. Mitengo yazomwe zikuchitikazo, zowongoka komanso zosiyanasiyanazo, zipitilizabe kufanana, ngakhale momwe magawo amasiyana mosiyana. Ndiye kuti, zinthuzo zimakhala zazikulu kuposa ma reactants, chifukwa chake chidwi chawo chidzawonjezeka nthawi zonse.

Mankhwalawa akafika pachimake velocities ndi machitidwe onse ofanana. Magawo onsewa amakhalabe osasintha popeza zonsezi zimachitika mwachangu. Pakangotha ​​kuchuluka kwa ma reactants, kuchuluka komweko kumapangidwanso nthawi yomweyo chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa zinthu zina. Ichi ndichifukwa chake dzina lofananira kwa mankhwala limadziwika ndipo limakhala lamphamvu kwambiri. Ndipo ndikuti mamolekyulu a reagents ndi mankhwala amapitilizabe kutenga nawo mbali pazomwe zimachitika, ngakhale kuchuluka kwawo sikusintha pakapita nthawi.

Ngati tili ndi ziwonetsero zomwezo ndizofanana koma mbali zonse ziwiri, ndizotheka kukhala ndi kufanana nthawi zonse.

Kufanana nthawi zonse

Zimatheka ndipo nthawi zonse zimafanana, bola zinthu monga kutentha ndizokhazikika. Ndiye kuti, kusasinthasintha kwamankhwala kumafanana, bola kutentha kukhale kosasunthika, ziribe kanthu kuchuluka kwa Nitrogen Tetraoxide yomwe imayikidwa mu vial poyamba.

Monga mukuwonera, kusamala kwa mankhwala ndikofunikira pamsika wamankhwala komanso chidziwitso pakupanga zinthu. Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zamagulu amakanidwe ndi kufunikira kwake.


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