Mayendedwe a mphamvu zamagetsi

makhalidwe a kayendedwe ka mphamvu zamagetsi

Tonse tikudziwa kuti magetsi amapangidwa m'mafakitale amagetsi. Zomwe sizimayankhulidwa kwambiri ndizo kunyamula mphamvu zamagetsi. Mayendedwe amagetsi amalola kutumiza mphamvu zopangidwa ndi mafakitale kupita kumalo ogwiritsira ntchito. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, ndi njira yomwe magetsi amatenga kuchokera ku mibadwomibadwo kupita kugawa.

M'nkhaniyi tikuuzani zomwe kayendetsedwe ka mphamvu zamagetsi ndizomwe zimayendera, momwe zimachitikira komanso kufunika kwake.

Mayendedwe a mphamvu zamagetsi

kugawa magetsi

Mphamvu yamagetsi imafalikira kudzera mu mizere yotumizira ma voteji, yomwe pamodzi ndi ma substations amapanga network yopatsira. Kutumiza magetsi osataya mphamvu pang'ono momwe ndingathere, m'pofunika kuwonjezera mlingo wake voteji. Mizere yotumizira kapena mizere yothamanga kwambiri imapangidwa ndi zinthu zopangira (mkuwa kapena aluminiyamu) ndi zinthu zothandizira (nsanja zamphamvu kwambiri). Izi, mphamvu zawo pamaneti ogawa zikachepa, zimayendetsa magetsi pamtunda wautali.

Maukonde opatsirana ndi meshed, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti mfundo zonse zimagwirizanitsidwa wina ndi mzake, ndipo ngati pali ngozi kwinakwake, mphamvu yamagetsi imatsimikiziridwa chifukwa mphamvu imatha kuchokera ku mzere wina. Kuphatikiza apo, ma netiweki opatsirana amayendetsedwa kutali, ndiko kuti, zolakwika zitha kuzindikirika ndikudzipatula ku malo owongolera.

The high voltage unit (AT) ndi amene amayang'anira zonyamula magetsi kuchokera ku fakitale kupita ku substation. Pazifukwa zachitetezo, zingwe zamagetsi zokwera kwambiri zimakwiriridwa kapena kuyikidwa pamitengo yamagetsi kunja kwa mizinda.

Malamulowa amatsimikizira kuti mphamvu iliyonse yoposa 1 kV imatengedwa kuti ndi AT, ngakhale makampani amagetsi akhazikitsa zosiyana kapena zipembedzo zina:

  • Zoyendera (gulu lapadera): makhazikitsidwe okhala ndi voteji yokulirapo kapena yofanana ndi 220 kV komanso yokhala ndi voteji yotsika yomwe ili gawo la netiweki yotumizira (mwachitsanzo, pazilumba, lingalirani netiweki ya 66 kV ngati kutumiza).
  • Ma network ogawa kwambiri ma voltage (magulu 1 ndi 2): zosakwana 220 kV ndi kupitirira 30 kV
  • Network yogawa mphamvu yapakati (gulu 3): pakati pa 30 kV ndi 1 kV.

Kodi kayendedwe ka mphamvu zamagetsi kamayang'aniridwa kuti?

kunyamula mphamvu zamagetsi

Maukonde opatsira mphamvu amakhala ndi ma netiweki oyambira opatsirana komanso ma network achiwiri. Kuphatikiza pa kusiyanitsa molingana ndi ma voltages osiyanasiyana a netiweki iliyonse, netiweki yapaintaneti yoyambira imaphatikizanso kulumikizana kwina kwapadziko lonse ndipo, ngati kuli koyenera, kulumikizana ndi magetsi omwe si a gawo. Zida zina zapaintaneti, monga nyumba ndi zinthu zina zothandizira, zamagetsi kapena ayi, zilinso gawo la maukonde oyendera.

Mayendetsedwe a mphamvu zamagetsi makamaka amawongolera gawo lamagetsi mu Mutu VI wa Lamulo 24/2013, la Disembala 26, zomwe zimatsimikizira kuti ndizinthu ziti zomwe zidzaphatikizidwe pa intaneti, zofunikira kuti zikhazikitse ndondomeko yogwirizanitsa maukonde kuti alole malipiro a malo atsopano azindikiridwe ndipo akuphatikizapo ntchito zomwe wonyamulira ayenera kuchita.

Momwemonso, pankhani ya chitetezo, ndikofunikiranso kutchula Lamulo 21/1992, la Julayi 16, pa Viwanda, lomwe limatsimikizira kuti miyezo yachitetezo idzawonetsa zofunikira pakuyika, udindo wa eni ake komanso luso laukadaulo. Lamuloli limafotokozanso mawonekedwe a mabungwe owongolera ndi mabungwe omwe amayenera kuchita zowunikira.

Pazonse zomwe tafotokozazi, ndikofunikira kuganizira Lamulo lachifumu 223/2008, la February 15, ndi yomwe imavomereza kuwongolera pamikhalidwe yaukadaulo, ndi Royal Decree 1955/2000, ya Disembala 1, kukhazikitsa ntchito zina zonyanyira zamayendedwe pakati.

Lamuloli likutsimikizira kuti makampani a T&D adzakhala ndi udindo wokonza, kukonza ndi kutsimikizira mizere yomwe ali nayo, komanso kuyang'anira mizere yothamanga kwambiri yomwe si yamakampani a T&D, ndipo lamuloli limapanga okhazikitsa digito ndi makampani oyika.

Kodi Red Electrica de España ndi chiyani?

chiwonetsero cha mzinda

Bungwe la Electricity Sector Law limakhazikitsa kuti Red Eléctrica de España, SA izichita ntchitoyi ngati yokhayo ndipo ili ndi mizere yonse yothamanga kwambiri. Komabe, lamulolo limalola boma kuti lipange zoyendera zina zachiwiri, chifukwa cha mawonekedwe awo ndi ntchito zawo, zomwe zili ndi anthu omwe ali ndi malo enaake.

Ogawana nawo kwambiri kampaniyo ndi Guotong Industrial Participation Company (SEPI), yomwe ali ndi 20% ya magawo. 80% yotsalayo imagulitsidwa mwaufulu pamsika wogulitsa. Zodziwika bwino za kampaniyo zimayendetsedwa ndi Law 54/1997, Novembara 27, makamaka nkhani yake yowonjezera 23.

Malipiro a ntchitoyi amachokera pamalipiro omwe avomerezedwa ndi National Commission for Markets and Competition (CNMC). Iyeneranso kupereka ndondomeko zoyendetsera ndalama zapachaka ndi zaka zambiri kuti boma livomereze.

Ndi zilolezo zotani zomwe zimafunikira pamayendedwe?

Kuyambitsa, kusinthidwa, kutumiza ndi kutseka kotsimikizika kwa kukhazikitsa magetsi kumayenera kutsatiridwa ndi chilolezo chokhazikitsidwa m'Chilamulo ndi zomwe zikupanga.

Kuti avomereze zoyendetsa, kugawa, kupanga ndi mizere yachindunji ya mphamvu zamagetsi, woyambitsa wake ayenera kutsimikizira izi (ndime 53.4 ya Chilamulo 24/2013, ya Disembala 26):

  1. Mikhalidwe yaukadaulo ndi chitetezo cha kukhazikitsa ndi zida zogwirizana nazo.
  2. Tsatirani kwathunthu zinthu zachilengedwe.
  3. Makhalidwe a malo oyika.
  4. mphamvu zake zazamalamulo, zaukadaulo ndi zachuma komanso zachuma kuti achite ntchitoyi.

Zilolezo zimaperekedwa ndi akuluakulu oyenerera pankhaniyi popanda kusagwirizana ndi zovomerezeka ndi zilolezo zofunikira potsatira malamulo ena ogwiritsidwa ntchito, makamaka okhudzana ndi ndondomeko yogwiritsira ntchito nthaka ndi chilengedwe. Kusowa kwa chigamulo chomveka bwino kudzakhala ndi zotsatira za kuchotsedwa ntchito (ndime yowonjezera 3 ya Lamulo la Gawo la Magetsi).

M'lingaliro limeneli, ziyenera kuzindikiridwa kuti, pakati pa malamulo ena, zomwe zili mu lamuloli zimakhazikitsidwa mu Royal Decree 1955/2000, ya December 1, yomwe. ntchito zoyendetsa, kugawa, kugulitsa, kupereka ndi njira zoyendetsera mphamvu zovomerezeka zimayendetsedwa.

Kodi udindo wa wonyamulira ndi wotani?

Wogwiritsa ntchitoyo ali ndi udindo wopanga ndi kukulitsa maukonde otumizirana mauthenga kuti atsimikizire kukonza ndi kukonza maukonde opangidwa molingana ndi miyezo yofanana komanso yogwirizana. Mwa zina, ntchito zawo zimaphatikizapo kukonza mapulani, kugwira ntchito ndi ma oyang'anira kuunika ndi kuyang'anira ndondomeko zoyendetsera ndalama, kuonetsetsa kuti palibe tsankho, perekani zilolezo zolumikizira kapena kulimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito malo otumizira mphamvu.

Ndikuyembekeza kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mungaphunzire zambiri za kayendedwe ka mphamvu zamagetsi.


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