Zomwe zimayambitsa ndi zotulukapo zodetsa nthaka

Kuwonongeka kwa dothi

La kuipitsidwa kwa nthaka kapena kusintha kwa nthaka kumakhala chifukwa cha zifukwa zosiyanasiyana ndipo zotsatira zake nthawi zambiri zimayambitsa mavuto akulu omwe amakhudza zomera, nyama kapena thanzi la munthu kwanthawi yayitali.

Kudzera muulimi ndi imodzi mwanjira zomwe chilengedwe sichikhala chokwanira, chikuwononga madzi akumwa kapena madzi othirira, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti vutoli silingathe kuthetsedwa nthawi zonse ndipo nthawi zina gawo lowonongeka limatha kupezeka. Koma,zomwe zimayambitsa zimapangitsa kuipitsa nthaka ndipo ungathetsedwe bwanji?

Zomwe zimayambitsa kuipitsa nthaka

Kuwonongeka kwa dothi ndi madzi chifukwa cha kutuluka kwa anthu

Zomwe zimayambitsa kuipitsidwa kwa nthaka ndizosiyanasiyana, mwachitsanzo Zinthu zapoizoni pansi pa nthaka zomwe zimadetsa madzi apansi panthaka yomwe idzagwiritsidwe ntchito kuthirira, kumwa kapena kutipatsa poizoni kudzera muzakudya. Njira yomwe imatha kudziipitsa tokha komanso zonse zomwe zatizungulira, ndipo vuto lalikulu ndikuti zingatenge mibadwo ingapo kuti ithetse zomwe tayambitsa poyesayesa kubala mosaganizira zomwe zidzachitike pambuyo pathu. .

Kukhudzana ndi dera lodetsedwa sikumakhala kwachindunji nthawi zonse. Ndi zomwe zimachitika akaikidwa m'manda zinthu zapoizoni mobisa ndipo izi zimathera pakuipitsa madzi apansi panthaka omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuthirira, kumwa kapena kutipatsa poizoni kudzera mu unyolo wa chakudya, mwa kudya nsomba, nkhuku kapena nyama ina iliyonse yoyipitsidwa.

madzi owonongeka ochokera mumtsinje wachikondi

Kusunga zinyalala molakwika, kutaya kwake mwadala kapena mwangozi (monga kampani ya Ercros ku Flix), kuchuluka kwa zinyalala pamwamba pake kapena kuikidwa m'manda komweko (malo ambiri otayidwa pansi ku Spain), komanso kutuluka m'matangi kapena madontho chifukwa chakuwonongeka, zomangamanga zoyipa ndi zina mwazomwe zimayambitsa.

Zotsatira zadothi

Ndipo, sitimangokhala pano kuyambira pano mndandanda wakula ndi mavuto "ang'onoang'ono" monga kutulutsa kwa ma radioactive, kugwiritsa ntchito kwambiri mankhwala ophera tizilombo, migodi, makampani opanga mankhwala kapena zomangamanga zomwezo zomwe zikugwiritsidwa ntchito masiku ano osazindikira mphamvu zomwe ali nazo.

Malo otayidwa pansi ku Spain

Chisamaliro chochepa chomwe dziko la Spain limapereka pakubwezeretsanso ndi kusamalira zachilengedwe lero ndi chochititsa manyazi ku European Union, koma chikuwopseza kuti gwero la chindapusa cha Miliyoneya m'zaka zotsatira. Brussels ili ndi mapulani ofuna kukonzanso zinthu: mu 2020, mayiko onse mamembala ake adzafunika kubwereranso 50% ya zinyalala zawo, ndipo Commission ili pafupi kuvomereza kufikira 70% mu 2030. Komabe, Spain sichimakonzanso lero 33% ya zinyalala zanu ndipo kupitako ndikochepa. Osayembekeza kuti dziko lathu lidzakwaniritsa ntchito yake mkati mwa zaka zitatu.

mamiliyoni matani zinyalala zapulasitiki amapangidwa chaka chilichonse

Msonkhano woyamba wadzuka wabwera kale ngati chigamulo chobwerezabwereza kuchokera ku Khothi Lalikulu la European Union (CJEU), lomwe limatsutsa Spain chifukwa chopezeka ndikusiya kwathunthu Malo otayira zinyalala osayang'aniridwa 88. Yoyamba idaperekedwa mu February 2016 ndipo idazindikira malo okwera 27 omwe anali akadali otanganidwa kapena osasindikizidwa atatsekedwa. Wachiwiri anafika masiku angapo apitawo ndipo akuyika chala chake phukusi lina 61, 80% yake imagawidwa pakati pa zilumba za Canary ndi Castilla y León.

Zinyalala zomwe zimasonkhana pagombe zosiyanasiyana

Malinga ndi akatswiri osiyanasiyana, ma landfills ndi bomba lomwe limatsalira nthawi. Mukatsekedwa, ayenera kuyang'aniridwa ndi chilengedwe wazaka za 30, kuyang'anira madzi apansi panthaka ndi mpweya wakumlengalenga, chifukwa njira zowola sizimayimitsidwa ndikutseka dzenje.

Zitseko zambiri zalamulo zimaphimbidwa ndi mametala atatu a polyethylene, yokhala ndi zotchinga zadongo nthawi zonse, koma nthawi zambiri zimaphulika ndi gasi komanso mayendedwe apansi. «Ndiwoopsa pagulu. Maulamuliro amabisala kuti ambiri amakhala ndi zinyalala zokhazokha, koma samalani kwambiri ndikuwononga ndi zomangira, monga asibesitosi kapena mapaipi amtovu, omwe awonetsedwa kuti ali ndi khansa»

Kutaya kuipitsidwa kwa nthaka ndi mavuto omwe amabwera nayo

Kutayira kwa Ercros ku Flix

Malo osungira a Flix, m'chigawo cha Catalan ku Tarragona, awonapo zaka zoposa XNUMX zawonongeka komanso kuwonongeka kwa nthaka ndi mankhwala osalekeza, owonjezera komanso owopsa ndi kampani yopanga mankhwala ya kampani ya Ercros. Izi zadzetsa kuipitsidwa mtsinje wa Ebro, kuyambira pamenepo kufikira pakamwa.

Zowononga zimaphatikizaponso zitsulo zolemera monga mercury ndi cadmium, kapena poizoni komanso osakanikirana ndi organochlorine mankhwala monga hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) kapena DDT ndi ma metabolites awo.

"Ercros, yomwe imadziwika kuti ndi mankhwala owononga kwambiri pamtsinje wa Ebro, yakhala ikulimbana kwazaka zambiri kuti ipewe kulipira kuyeretsa kwa mtsinjewo, womwe ndi gwero lofunikira lamadzi akumwa. Fakitore ya Ercros ili pafupi ndi tawuni ya Flix, yomwe imapatsa dzina lake ku dziwe lomwe lakhudzidwa ndi kuipitsidwa kwa Ercros SA, kale Erkimia, komwe limapanga ndikugulitsa mankhwala opangira mankhwala ndi mankhwala.

CO2

Mndandanda wautali

Tsoka ilo, mndandandawo ndi wautali kwambiri, pafupifupi wopanda malire. Titha kutchulanso zina zambiri zofunika kuzipanga, monga migodi (zida monga mercury, cadmium, mkuwa, arsenic, lead), makampani opanga mankhwala, kutulutsa kwa radioactive, kugwiritsa ntchito kwambiri mankhwala ophera tizilombo, kuwonongeka kwa injini zoyaka, utsi wochokera m'makampani, zomangira, kuwotcha mafuta (malasha, mafuta ndi gasi), zimbudzi zakale zili bwino pakati pa ena.

mpweya wabwino ku barcelona umachepa chifukwa cha kuipitsa kwa magalimoto

Titha kuwona kuti pali zinthu zambiri zoyipitsa nthaka, zomwe zimayambitsa nthawi zambiri ndizovuta kuzipeza, popeza zoipitsa zimatha kufikira zomera kapena nyama kapena kuipitsa madzi m'njira zosiyanasiyana, koma osati nthawi zonse ndizochepa.

Madzi owonongeka, mankhwala opangira mankhwala amathandiza kuthetsa vutoli

Muzochitika zowawazo ndikuti pali zifukwa zambiri, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimayambitsa kusakhazikika poyesa kudziwa zomwe zili, popeza ndi ntchito yovuta. Zili ngati m'nyumba mwathu tadulamo 20 ndipo sitinathe kuwona komwe ali komanso momwe tingathetsere kapena kukonzanso. Vuto lomwe pano si nyumba yathu, ndi pulaneti lathu lomwe lomwe lili pachiwopsezo

Vuto lina lalikulu ndikuti pali zifukwa zambiri, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimayambitsa kusakhazikika poyesa kudziwa zomwe zili, popeza ndi ntchito yovuta. Zili ngati m'nyumba mwathu tadulamo 20 ndipo sitinathe kuwona komwe ali komanso momwe tingathetsere kapena kukonzanso. Vuto lomwe pano si nyumba yathu, ndi pulaneti lathu lomwe lomwe lili pachiwopsezo.

Mitundu ya zinyalala

Zinthu zowopsa: Zotsuka, utoto, mankhwala ndi mabatire ndizowopsa kwambiri. Zogulitsazi zimafunikira kampeni yosonkhanitsira yomwe siyimangokhala malo osayimitsidwa pomwe angayambitse zowononga zachilengedwe mwa kuipitsa madzi ndi nthaka.

Ma stacks ndi amodzi mwa mankhwala owopsa owopsa chifukwa cha mercury ndi cadmium. Mabatire atatha ndikuchulukirachulukira kapena kuwotcha, mercury imaloledwa kuthawa, ndipo posakhalitsa imalowa m'madzi. Mercury imayamwa ndi plankton ndi algae, kuchokera ku izi kupita ku nsomba komanso kuchokera kwa izi kupita kwa munthu. Selo labatani limatha kuipitsa malita 600.000. yamadzi. Mankhwala ali ndi zinthu zapoizoni zomwe zimalowanso m'malo otayirapo zinyalala ndikulowa m'madzi, kuwuipitsa.

Zinyalala

  • Mayi: zinyalala zochokera mnyumba ndi / kapena madera.
  • Makampani: chiyambi chake chimachokera pakupanga kapena kusintha kwa zinthuzo.
  • Kuchereza alendo: zinyalala zomwe nthawi zambiri zimawerengedwa kuti ndi zinyalala zowopsa ndipo zitha kukhala zachilengedwe komanso zopanda pake.
  • Zosangalatsa: kuchokera kumawonetsero, maofesi, masitolo, ndi zina zambiri, ndipo ndizopangidwa mwachilengedwe, monga zotsalira za zipatso, ndiwo zamasamba, makatoni, mapepala, ndi zina zambiri.
  • Zinyalala zam'mizinda: yolingana ndi anthu, monga zinyalala zapaki ndi dimba, mipando yamatauni yopanda ntchito, ndi zina zambiri.
  • Zopanda malo: ma satelayiti ndi zinthu zina zopangidwa ndi anthu zomwe, zikadali padziko lapansi, zatha kale moyo wawo wothandiza.
Nkhani yowonjezera:
Zinyalala zapulasitiki m'nyanja ndi vuto lalikulu pazachilengedwe

Zotsatira zadothi

La kuipitsidwa kwa nthaka zikuyimira zotsatirapo zingapo ndi zotsatirapo zake zoyipa kwa amuna, komanso kwa zomera ndi zinyama zambiri. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana yazakudya za poizoni imadalira kwambiri chinthu chilichonse chomwe dothi lakhala likuwonongeka.

Choyamba zotsatira Kuwononga uku kumakhudza zomera, zomerazo ndi zowonongedwa ndipo mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya zamoyo ichepetsedwa kwambiri, zomwe zidakalipobe zidzawonetsa zofooka ndipo machitidwe awo achilengedwe amakhala ovuta.

Kuwonongeka kwa dothi kumalepheretsa chitukuko cha moyo wa nyamaPopanda chakudya kapena madzi oyera, zamoyo zimasunthika kapena kuwonongeka kosatheka m'mabande awo. Ndi njirayi ndiye chomwe chimatchedwa "kuwonongeka kwa malo" motero "kutaya phindu la nthaka”, Ntchito zaulimi zimasiya, zinyama zimasowa ndipo nthaka ilibe ntchito.

Kuwonongeka kwa nthaka kumakhudza zotsatirapo zingapo zoyipa kuyambira pomwepo kutsika, monga tanena kale, ngakhale kusatheka kwa ntchito yomanga, kulima kapena, mophweka komanso mophweka, kukhala ndi zachilengedwe.

zinyalala ndi zotsatira zake

Zotsatira zake zitha kuzunzidwa mwakachetechete, ndikupangitsa a kutuluka kwanthawi zonse kwa ozunzidwa, kaya anthu kapena nyama ndi mitundu ya zomera.

Chitsanzo chomveka bwino chinali fakitale yamagetsi ku Chernobyl, kapena yaposachedwa kwambiri Kutulutsa kwa radioactive kuchokera ku chomera cha ku Japan de Fukushima, chifukwa kuipitsidwa kwa nthaka kwakhudza ulimi, ziweto ndi usodzi. Zapezeka ngakhale Zinyalala zamagetsi zakunyanja kuchokera ku Fukushima, makamaka pamtunda wapansi panthaka yomweyi, malinga ndi kafukufuku wosiyanasiyana wa Institute of Industrial Science ku University of Tokyo, University of Kanazawa ndi National Research Institute.

kutayika ndi kuyesa kuwongolera

Kumbali inayi, komanso kuwonongeka kwachilengedwe kwachilengedwe chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa zachilengedwe, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimakhala zosasinthika, kuwonongeka kwa nthaka kumatanthauza Anthu mamiliyoni ambiri ataya poletsa kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwachilengedwe ndi anthu wamba kapena ogulitsa mafakitale.

kusiya chifukwa cha kuipitsidwa, kuli bwanji chernobyl

Chernobyl zaka 30 pambuyo pake

M'zaka 30 chichitikireni ngozi ya nyukiliya ku Chernobyl, chikominisi chinagwa, Soviet Union inatha, ndipo analipo ngakhale kusintha kawiri ndi nkhondo yosakhalitsa komanso yosatha ku Ukraine.

Potengera nthawi ya mbiriyakale, zikuwoneka kuti dziko lasintha kwambiri kuyambira m'mawa wowopsawo, pomwe gulu la akatswiri linaphulitsa chojambulira china chachinayi cha magetsi Vladimir Lenin, ngakhale anali kuchita mayeso omwe amayenera kulimbikitsa chitetezo chawo.

Koma zachilengedwe - mpweya, madzi, nthaka komanso chilichonse chomwe chimakhalamo - zili ngati manja a wotchi sanasunthe kwenikweni. Pulogalamu ya Kuwonongeka kwa dothi la radioactive kumatenga zaka masauzande ambiri kuti kuwonongeke. Chifukwa chake zaka makumi atatu zilibe kanthu zikafika pangozi yanyukiliya yowopsa kwambiri padziko lapansi.

chernobyl lero (mzinda wamzukwa)

Chernobyl imapezekabe mumtchire zipatso ndi bowa, mkaka ndi mkaka, nyama ndi nsomba, tirigu. Ndi nkhuni zomwe amagwiritsanso ntchito kuyatsa moto ndi phulusa lomwe latsalira pambuyo pake. Mwanjira ina, muumoyo wa anthu onse. Chinthu choyenera - ngakhale lero - chikanakhala kupita kumsika ndi Kauntala ka Geiger, makina ang'onoang'ono omwe amapangitsa phokoso lopweteka mukamayandikira ma radioactivity, kuti mudziwe ngati zinthu zomwe mungatenge patebulo lanu zili ndi chitetezo chokwanira kumeza. 

Nyama pafupi ndi chomera chamagetsi cha Chernobyl.

Njira zothetsera kuwonongeka kwa nthaka

Kupewa ndi yankho labwino koposa, phunzitsani womaliza kupereka. Kuchokera potaya zinyalala m'malo mwanu kuti mutenge nawo gawo pakuyendetsa pagulu.

ana yobwezeretsanso, kupewa ndi njira yabwino kwambiri yolimbana ndi kuipitsa nthaka

Komanso ndizowona kuti simungathe nthawi zonse (ndipo simukufuna) kupewa kuipitsidwa kwa nthaka. Nthawi zina ngozi zimachitika, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kuletsa, pamene sizingatheke.

Ngati tipita molunjika kuzu wamavuto, a Kusintha kwakukulu pamachitidwe opanga kapena kuletsa zizolowezi zina monga zochitika m'mafakitore ena omwe amapanga zinyalala zapoizoni, migodi, kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza wokumba wothandizidwa ndi mafuta.

Tsoka ilo, izi ndiye maloto chabe. Chifukwa chake, poyang'anizana ndi fait accompli, mayankho amafunidwa kuyambira kuyeretsa malowa mpaka kugawa kosavuta kwa malo owonongeka ndi kuletsa kugwiritsa ntchito kwake pazinthu zina. M'mavuto akulu, monga Fukushima kapena Chernobyl, madera omwe akhudzidwa sakhala oyenera moyo wamunthu.

Chernobyl patatha zaka 30

Ndipo, popeza kuipitsa kwawonjezeka mzaka makumi angapo zapitazi chifukwa chachitukuko ndi chitukuko chamatauni, mayankho amachokera ndendende m'manja mwa magwero awa. Mwachizolowezi, zochita zikuyang'ana pakukonzanso mbewu zobwezerezedwanso kuchepetsa kuipitsidwa kwa nthaka komanso, nthawi yomweyo, ndi madzi, chifukwa amatha kuipitsa.

Ecovidrio ndi maubwino okonzanso

Bioremediation ndi njira yomwe ikufuna kubwezeretsa zamoyo zoyipitsidwa pogwiritsa ntchito zamoyo, monga mabakiteriya, zomera, bowa ... Kutengera mtundu wa zoyipitsa zomwe mukufuna kuthana nazo, wothandizila wina kapena wina adzagwiritsidwa ntchito mulangizi. Kugwiritsa ntchito kwake ndikotakata, kumakhala ndi zotsatira zosangalatsa m'nthaka yoyipitsidwa ndi radioactivity kapena, mwachitsanzo, ndi zochitika zamigodi.

Monga machitidwe abwino, kukonzanso bwino zinyalala ndikuwononga zinyalala, kukhazikitsa mphamvu zowonjezeredwa, chithandizo chazinyalala zaku mafakitale ndi zapakhomo kapena kupititsa patsogolo ulimi wa zachilengedwe zitha kuthandiza kuti dothi lisakhale ndi kuipitsa. Sungani malo ogwiritsira ntchito zimbudzi bwino ndikuwongolera momwe madzi akumwa amagwiritsidwira ntchito, komanso chithandizo chazotulutsa zomwe zabwezedwa m'chilengedwe.

mphamvu ya dzuwa ndi maubwino ake onse

Zina mwazothetsera mavuto ndi izi:

Khalani ndi mayendedwe abwino onyamula anthu onse

Anthu sagwiritsa ntchito magalimoto kuti athandizire, komanso chifukwa chovuta kuyenda pamayendedwe aboma m'mizinda yambiri. Ngati maboma azigwiritsa ntchito ndalama zoyendera pagulu, anthu sangafune kuzigwiritsa ntchito

zoyendera pagulu ku barcelona

Kugwiritsa ntchito magalimoto amagetsi

Magalimoto amagetsi akuchulukirachulukira m'mizinda ndipo, chifukwa amayendetsedwa ndi magetsi okha, samatulutsa mtundu uliwonse wa zotulutsa m'chilengedwe. Pomwe kudziyimira pawokha kumakhala vutoMasiku ano, mabatire amagetsi amatenga nthawi yayitali, ndipo ndizotheka kupeza malo opangira ma driver m'malo osiyanasiyana amizinda.

Galimoto yamagetsi ndi maubwino onse omwe amabwera nayo

Pewani kuyendetsa galimoto yanu nthawi yayitali mukamaima

Njira yomwe mungatenge pakadali pano. Pewani kuimirira pomwe galimoto yanu ikuyenda, chifukwa munthawiyo galimotoyo imagwiritsa ntchito mafuta ochuluka, ndi mpweya wake

Sungani bwino galimoto yanu

Galimoto yosagwira bwino ntchito imakonda kuipitsa zambiri. Mukamayendetsa galimoto yanu moyenera, mumayesetsa osati popewa mavuto, komanso mumachepetsa mpweya

magalimoto amaipitsa mizinda

Thandizani kupewa kudula mitengo mwachisawawa

Pofuna kupewa kuipitsidwa kwa nthaka, njira zodula mitengo ziyenera kuchitika mwachangu. Bzalani mitengo. Kukokoloka kwa dothi kumachitika ngati kulibe mitengo yoletsa nthaka kuti isanyamuke ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana zachilengedwe, monga madzi ndi mpweya.

Sankhani zambiri pazinthu zamagetsi.

Palibe funso kuti zopangidwa ndi zinthu zotsika mtengo ndizotsika poyerekeza ndi mankhwala. Koma kusankha kwa zinthu zachilengedwe kumalimbikitsa a kupanga kwachilengedwe kwambiri. Izi zidzakuthandizani kupewa kuipitsa nthaka.

Matumba apulasitiki

Gwiritsani matumba a nsalu. Pewani kudya matumba apulasitiki chifukwa amatenga nthawi yayitali kuti asungunuke. Mwamwayi popeza amalipira momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito watsika kwambiri.

zimayambitsa kuipitsa

Konzani kusanja kwazinyalala

Tiyenera kugawa zinyalala malinga ndi kapangidwe kake:

  • Zinyalala Organic: Zinyalala zonse zoyambira, zomwe kale zinali zamoyo kapena zomwe zinali zamoyo, mwachitsanzo: masamba, nthambi, mankhusu ndi zotsalira zopangira chakudya kunyumba, ndi zina zambiri.
  • Zotsalira zachilengedwe: Kuwononga kulikonse kosachokera kwachilengedwe, kochokera m'mafakitale kapena njira zina zosakhala zachilengedwe, mwachitsanzo: pulasitiki, nsalu zopangira, ndi zina zambiri.
  • Zatsalira zowopsa: Zinyalala zilizonse, kaya zachilengedwe kapena ayi, zomwe zitha kukhala zowopsa motero ziyenera kuthandizidwa mwanjira yapadera, mwachitsanzo: mankhwala opatsirana, zinyalala za nyukiliya, zidulo ndi mankhwala owononga, ndi zina zambiri.

 

 


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

Ndemanga za 15, siyani anu

Siyani ndemanga yanu

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa. Amafuna minda amalembedwa ndi *

*

*

  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.

  1.   Dalila Rolón del Puerto anati

    Zosangalatsa kwambiri, zamaphunziro, zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti ntchitoyi iyenera kudziwika ndi malo ophunzitsira, chifukwa ndipamene tiyenera kulimbikira pazomwe zimayambitsa ndi zotsatira zake! Zikomo, zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zophweka kwambiri kuti ndipeze wina wondithandizira
    ntchito yopitilira kukulitsa kuzindikira.

    1.    Manuel Ramirez anati

      Mwalandilidwa, Delilah!

  2.   alireza anati

    zopenga 🙂

  3.   Celsus anati

    Tidzawona zotsatira za fakitale yamagetsi ku Fukushima mtsogolomo, ndipo zikhala zowopsa kwambiri. Zonse chifukwa chosatsatira malangizo achitetezo. Mlandu wina wofunikira ndi kuipitsidwa kwa zamoyo zam'madzi ndikuthira mafuta. Nkhani yabwino, yofunikira kukweza kuzindikira pakati pa anthu.
    zonse

    1.    Manuel Ramirez anati

      Zikomonso! : =)

  4.   Katemera wochulukirapo anati

    Malongosoledwe anu ndiosangalatsa

    1.    Manuel Ramirez anati

      Zikomo! Moni waukulu!

  5.   Katemera wochulukirapo anati

    Ndimapatsa 1000

  6.   Miguel anati

    Zikomo, munandithandiza homuweki.

  7.   sofi anati

    Sindinakonde

  8.   luismi anati

    zabwino kwambiri lipotili pitilizani kuti muwone ngati tonse titha kuzindikira kuwonongeka komwe tikupanga

  9.   rosysela saldaña villacorta anati

    Zomwe zimayambitsa lipotili zinali:
    The poizoni pansi pa nthaka
    Kutaya mwadala kapena mwangozi
    kutuluka kokhazikika

  10.   alireza anati

    Moni. kufotokoza bwino kwambiri ...

  11.   magwire anati

    Zomwe zimayambitsa kuyambitsa kutsokomola kwa nyama

  12.   Gudumu lobiriwira anati

    Ndizosangalatsa kuti amaphunzitsa izi munkhani yayikuluyi, kukonzanso kungapulumutse mapiri, mizinda, mitsinje ndi nyanja.
    Tiyenera kuphunzitsa m'dera lathu phindu lobwezeretsanso.