CHITSANZO

Kukula kwa mphamvu yogwiritsira ntchito mphamvu kwakhala kukuwonjezeka pazaka zambiri pomwe kusintha kwamphamvu kukufalikira. Kukula uku kwa magetsi padziko lonse lapansi kumapangitsa kufunikira kufunafuna njira zina zamagetsi zomwe zingathandize kudyetsa zofunikira zonse zomwe zingafunike. Popeza kusakanikirana kwa zida za nyukiliya kulibe pakadali pano pamafakitale, kafukufuku wambiri m'malo angapo kwazaka zambiri. Kugwiritsa ntchito zomwe zanenedwa ndi kusakanikirana ndi zida za nyukiliya ndi chimodzi mwazolinga ndi zoyesayesa zomwe ofufuza onse akuchita kuti apange mphamvu zambiri zamagetsi. Pachifukwa ichi, pali pulogalamu yotchedwa CHITSANZO (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zomwe pulogalamu ya ITER imakhala ndi cholinga chake chachikulu.

ITER ndi chiyani

ZOKHUDZA KWAMBIRI

Mphamvu zomwe zimapangidwa kudzera mu zida za nyukiliya zomwe zimadziwika kuti kusakanikirana kwa nyukiliya zitha kukhala zazikulu. Pamene mphamvu yomwe imapangidwa pakuphatikizika kwa nyukiliya yamaatomu opepuka mu zolemetsa kwambiri idagwiritsidwa ntchito, mphamvu yayikulu yambiri imatha kupezeka. Komabe, ndichinthu chomwe sichinapangidwebe pakampani.

Kuyambira zaka za m'ma 50 pakhala kuyesayesa kwakukulu pakufufuza ndi kukonza fusion ya nyukiliya chifukwa ili ndi mwayi waukulu. Ndipo ndikuti pakaphatikizidwe nyukiliya pamakhala mphamvu zambiri. Chimodzi mwazinthu zofunikira kuti kusakanikirana uku kuchitike ndi deuterium. Deuterium ndi hydrogen isotope yokwanira. Pachifukwa ichi, kusakanikirana kwa zida za nyukiliya ndiimodzi mwazomwe anthu amafunafuna kwambiri pamagetsi.

ITER ndi imodzi mwamapulogalamu apadziko lonse lapansi omwe awonetsa kuti ndizotheka kusunga njira yolumikizirana ndi nyukiliya mu plasma koma pamafunika kuyesetsa kwambiri. Cholinga cha pulogalamuyi ndikuwunika momwe luso la nyukiliya lingagwirizane. Njira yomwe izi zikuyenera kuchitikira ndikutsekera kwamagetsi kwamagetsi. Izi zimakhala ngati gawo loyambirira pomanga malo omwe angagwiritsidwe ntchito popanga mphamvu pochita izi.

Kwa zaka zoposa 50, Europe yakhala ikutsogolera kafukufuku wamaukadaulo a nyukiliya. Zinthu zonse zokhudzana ndi fusion yokhudzana ndi fizikiya ndi kafukufuku wamagetsi zimalumikizidwa kudzera ku European Commission. Pulogalamu ya ITER imathandizidwa kudzera mu EURATOM Research Framework Program ndi ndalama zadziko kuchokera ku Member States ndi Switzerland. Chimodzi mwamaubwino osakanikirana ndi nyukiliya ndi mphamvu yake yayikulu. Ndipo ndikuti ili ndi kuthekera kwakukulu kopanga mphamvu. Vuto ndiloti kuti kusakanikirana kwa nyukiliya kuyende bwino, pamafunika kutentha pakati pa 100 ndi 200 miliyoni madigiri Celsius. Ichi ndichinthu chomwe lero sichingakwaniritsidwe.

ITER, Cadarache ndi Spain

CHITSANZO

Inali pulojekiti yomwe idali ndi bajeti yoyambirira ya pafupifupi 5.000 miliyoni mayuro yomwe ingapitirire katatu ngati zotsatira zikayamba kuwonekera mwachangu. Kutalika kwa nthawi yomanga ntchitoyi kuli pafupifupi pafupifupi zaka 10 ndipo akuyembekezeka kupitiliza ntchitoyi kwa zaka 20 zina.

ITER imawerengedwa kuti ndi projekiti yayikulu kwambiri yakufufuza zamagetsi padziko lapansi. Cholinga chake chachikulu ndikuwonetsa kuti ndizotheka kugwiritsa ntchito kuphatikiza nyukiliya ngati magetsi. Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti kusakanikirana kwa nyukiliya kumachitika mkati mwa dzuwa ndi nyenyezi. M'malo amenewa kutentha kumakhala kwakukulu kwambiri komanso kuthamanga. Kupanikizika chifukwa cha mphamvu yayikulu yokoka yomwe imakhalapo padzuwa kumapangitsa kutentha kukhala kwakukulu kwambiri ndipo kusakanikirana kwa nyukiliya kumatha kuchitika.

Mpaka lero ikadali makina ofufuzira, pokhala ngati makina oyesera. Likulu la European Fusion Agency lakhala ku Barcelona kuyambira 2007, komwe zoyesayesa zonse zofunika kuti pakhale kusakanikirana kwa zida za nyukiliya zakonzedwa ku ITER. Pali kwathunthu anthu opitilira 180 ogwira ntchito agawika pakati pa mainjiniya, asayansi ndi oyang'anira. Spain ikutenga nawo gawo pulogalamuyi kudzera ku European Union ndipo zopereka zake zoyambirira komanso zazikuluzikulu zili mgulu la sayansi ya maginito omangidwa.

Kuyesera kukonzanso kusintha kwa tritium, kuwongolera jekeseni wamagetsi ndi njira zowunikira, tritium ndi isotope ina ya hydrogen. Spain ikuyesetsa kwambiri kuti kusintha kwamatekinoloje kukhudzitse chitukuko cha riyakitala. Kuthandizidwa ndi zida zapadera, makina oyendetsera kutali, ndi makina azitsulo.

Latest uthenga

Nkhani zaposachedwa za polojekiti ya ITER ndikuti idapatsidwa chilolezo mu 2012 ndi akuluakulu aku France. Ntchito yomanga idayamba mu 2014 ndipo zinthu zinagawidwa m'maiko omwe akutenga nawo mbali pantchitoyi.

Sikuti aliyense amagwirizana ndi ndalama zambiri zomwe amafunika kuti ziphatikizidwe ndi zida za nyukiliya. Zowonjezera, Pali zovuta zina zomwe ziyenera kuthetsedwa, monga kupanga gasi wa radioactive tritium.. Pali magulu ena omwe amafotokoza kuti zolinga zamagetsi zomwe tidaziwona zitha kuthekera ngati ndalama zonsezo zitha kupangidwa ndi mphamvu zoyera komanso zotsika mtengo monga kuphatikiza mphamvu zowonjezeredwa.

Amaganiziranso kuti kuphatikiza kwa mphamvu zowonjezeredwa kutha kuchitika munthawi yochepa komanso pamtengo wotsika. Amaganiziranso kuti kupanga mphamvu mwanjira iliyonse kumawononga ndalama ndipo kumawononga chilengedwe pamlingo winawake. Komabe, mphamvu zowonjezeredwa zawonetsedwa kuti zimakhudza chilengedwe chifukwa zimagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu kuchokera m'chilengedwe. Siziipitsa panthawi yogwiritsira ntchito ndipo zitha kupitilizidwa ndi chitukuko chaumisiri.

Kutengera momwe kafukufuku wa ITER amapitira, Sizingatheke kupanga mphamvu zotsatsa mpaka 2035 koyambirira.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za polojekiti ya ITER.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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