Fracking ku Spain

Kulephera kwa Fracking ku Spain

M'nkhani zam'mbuyomu tidawona kuti ndi kuyamwa. Ndi njira yopangira gasi ndi mafuta kuti ichitike, kukakamizidwa kunkagwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zina zadothi komwe zimafunikira. Izi zimagwiritsa ntchito zophulika zomwe zili mkati mwala ndikutulutsa gasi kapena mafuta omwe alipo kale. Lero timayang'ana pa fracking ku Spain. Momwe kukhalira kwakhalira kwakula mzaka izi komanso momwe zasinthira nthawi zonse. Chifukwa chiyani kuyimitsa kunasiya kugwiritsidwa ntchito?

Munkhaniyi tikufotokozerani zonse zakuwombera ku Spain.

Zotsatira zakuseka

Fracking ku Spain

Vuto lokhala ndi ma fracking ndikuti ndi njira yomwe imawonongera madera ambiri padziko lapansi. Zomwe zimakhudza chilengedwe ndizokwera chifukwa nkhokwe zina za gasi sizingatheke. Pali maphunziro ochulukirapo omwe akuwonetsa zovuta zoyipa zomwe kuzingidwa kumakhudza chilengedwe. Zimasokoneza zomera, zinyama, madzi, nthaka komanso thanzi la anthu. Izi ndichifukwa choti mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mankhwala amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuthyola ndikuchepetsa thanthwe. Mankhwalawa akangogwiritsidwa ntchito, ngalande zam'madzi ndi nthaka zimatha kuipitsidwa. Pachifukwa ichi, njira iyi yopangira gasi wachilengedwe ndi mafuta nthawi zonse imakhala yotsutsana kwambiri.

Sikuti ndi kuipitsa kokha komwe njirayi imatulutsa komanso mpweya wowonjezera kutentha womwe umatulutsidwa mumlengalenga, momwe mpweya wa methane umadziwika. Mpweyawu ndiwowononga kwambiri m'mlengalenga chifukwa umakhala wowonjezera kutentha kuposa mpweya woipa. Palinso mankhwala ena omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito monga benzene ndi lead omwe amadziwika kuti khansa.

Tikuwona momwe malo osokonekera ku Spain asinthira. Kuyambira pachiyambi cha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwake ndikugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zinthu zachilengedwe mpaka kuchepa kwake.

Fracking ku Spain

Kutulutsa gasi lachilengedwe

Kumayambiriro kogwiritsa ntchito njirayi, panali makampani asanu omwe adayika nyama pachakudya cham'madzi ku Spain. Izi zidayamba koyambirira kwa 2010. Njira imeneyi inalonjeza kuti mpweya wonse ukhoza kuchepetsa kudalira kwa Spain ma hydrocarboni ochokera kumayiko ena, kutipangitsa kukhala osadalira. Kuchokera pakuwona kwamphamvu zinali zina zotheka ndipo gululi lidalumikizidwa ndi amameya ndi maulamuliro. Komabe, mitengo yotsika yasokoneza mapulani onse opangira zinthu. Makampani asanu omwe atchulidwa pamwambapa asiya kugwiritsa ntchito ma fracking.

Njira yotulutsira gasi wachilengedweyi inali kusintha kwa mphamvu ku United States. Makampani aku Spain adati kusintha kwa gasi wachilengedwe kumatha kubweranso kuno. Izi ndichifukwa choti kudera laling'ono la Spain, makamaka la Basque-Cantabrian Basin, pali malo osungira gasi omwe ali ofanana ndi pafupifupi zaka 70 pazogwiritsa ntchito dziko lino. Izi zimachokera ku lipoti la 2013 lomwe lidakonzedwa ndi Spain Association of Companies for Research, Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons and Underground Storage. Ripotilo lidawonetsa kuti mu dothi laku Spain panali ma golide achilengedwe opitilira 700 miliyoni. Zachidziwikire, kuchuluka kwa ndalamazi kunapangitsa kuti makampani omwe atchulidwa pamwambapa aganizirenso kulimbikitsa kutulutsa kwa gasi kudzera pakuphulika kwa ma hydraulic.

Njira yochotsera iwonetsedwa ndi magulu azachilengedwe. Zovuta zachilengedwe zomwe zimapangidwa ndi ma fracking ndizokwera kwambiri ndipo zimawononga gawo lonselo komwe zimachokera.

Makampani a 5

Kutsutsa kwachilengedwe

Makampani asanu omwe adatsogolera gulu lankhondo ku Spain adapanga gulu lotchedwa Shale Gas Spain. Makampani onsewa adakana kale njirayi mdziko lathu. Kampani yomaliza ndi kampani yaboma yomwe imadalira boma la Basque. Kumapeto kwa Okutobala ndipamene zilolezo zofufuzira za hydrocarbon zomwe zidaperekedwa zidayimitsidwa.

Pakadali pano, tili ndi ziphaso zochepa zomwe zimathandizira kutulutsa gasi wachilengedwe munjirayi. Zilolezo zambiri zimapezeka ku Cantabria. Ndi mdera lodziyimira pawokha pomwe unduna wamagetsi ndi womwe, kupatula pang'ono, unapatsa kuwala kobiriwira kuti ntchito zithandizire. Tsopano, pakadali pano, ndi khothi lalamulo lomwe limapangitsa kuti madera odziyimira pawokha athe kukana kapena kukhudza ntchito yomwe ikuphwanyidwa.

Ngakhale mauthenga azachilengedwe afika kwambiri pakati pa anthu, Sicho chifukwa chachikulu chomwe kuchepa kwachuma kwachepetsedwa ku Spain. Chifukwa chachikulu njirayi yatha chifukwa mtengo wotsika wamafuta lero. Mwanjira ina, mtsogolomo, ngakhale mtengo wamafuta ungakwere, ndizotheka kuti izi zitha kusinthidwa ndikukhalanso achangu. Kukakamizidwa ndi magulu azachilengedwe sikokwanira kuyimitsa kayendedwe kameneka. Komabe, ziyenera kudziwika kuti zovuta zachilengedwe zomwe zimadza chifukwa cha njira yopezera gasi lachilengedwe zimapitilira malire achilengedwe. Mwanjira imeneyi, sikuti imangowononga chilengedwe, komanso imawononga anthu.

Chifukwa chake, izi ziyenera kukhala zifukwa zothetsera kukwapula ku Spain. Mbali iyi, ndale komanso kupeza mavoti ndi anthu odziyimira pawokha kumathandizanso.

Mbali yakuda yakuwombera

Monga tikudziwira, njirayi idatsutsidwa m'njira zambiri. Chimodzi mwazovuta kwambiri chikuyambitsa zivomezi zazing'ono. M'madera ena ku United States komwe kwakhala zivomezi zazing'ono kwambiri, kwakhala kuli malo omwe akhala akutulutsidwa kwambiri ndi kuphulika kwa ma hydraulic. Malo ngati Texas kapena Ohio kumene kulibe zoopsa zilizonse zakusokonekera kwa zivomerezi, pakhala pali zivomezi zochulukirapo mazana.

Mbali ina ndi kuipitsidwa komwe kumapangidwa ndi njirayi. Madzi ndi chinthu chofunikira kwambiri ndipo panthawiyi, madzi apansi panthaka komanso omwe amasungunula mankhwala opangirawo ndi owonongeka. Ma hitchi ena samayendetsedwa bwino kuwonongeka kumatha kukhala kwakukulu kwambiri.

Monga mukuwonera, kukankhira ku Spain ndikutsutsana kwambiri. Tikukhulupirira siziphukiranso ngakhale mitengo yamafuta ikakwera. Kutulutsa gasi lachilengedwe sikulipidwa chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa njirayi. Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi izi mutha kuphunzira zambiri pamutuwu.


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  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.