Chithunzi cha photon. Zomwe muyenera kudziwa

Zithunzi zowala zikuyenda mosalala

Zachidziwikire kuti mudamvapo za zithunzi. Nthaŵi zambiri amalankhulidwa m'munda wa chemistry ndi nthawi zina mu fizikiki, koma zomwe zilidi a chithunzi? Ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono ta kuwala komwe timafalikira m'malo osunthika. Ndi photon yomwe imapangitsa kuti ma radiation amagetsi azisunthira kuchoka pamfundo ina kupita kwina mosiyanasiyana momwe titha kuwonera.

Musaphonye zambiri zokhudzana ndi photon. Timalongosola mwatsatanetsatane mawonekedwe, zomwe apeza komanso kupita patsogolo komwe ma photon adapereka mu sayansi. Mukufuna kudziwa zambiri?

Kodi photon ndi chiyani?

Mphamvu ya photon mumlengalenga

Ichi ndichinthu chovuta kufotokoza bwino mu sentensi imodzi monga tachita pamwambapa. Ndi tinthu tating'ono kwambiri, titero kunena kwake, amatha kuyenda kudzera zingalowe, kunyamula cheza onse mu atomu. Mawu akuti photon amachokera pa chithunzi chomwe chimatanthauza kuwala. Ndiye kuti, photon ndiyopepuka. Sikuti tikungonena ma radiation a magetsi tikamanena za cheza choipa cha ultraviolet, gamma cheza kuchokera mumlengalenga, kapena infrared light.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti mkati mwa mawonekedwe amagetsi tili ndi malo omwe timadziwa kuti ndi owala. Dera ili limayenda pakati pa 400 ndi 700 nm ndipo ndizomwe zimatipangitsa kuwona mitundu yonse pakati pa ofiira ndi amtambo.

Monga tanena kale, ndizovuta kutanthauzira mawu akuti photon monga choncho. M'malo mwake, nthawi zambiri mawuwa amagwiritsidwa ntchito tsiku ndi tsiku, amagwiritsidwa ntchito molakwika. Zomwe tinganene motsimikiza ndizakuti tinthu tomwe chimakhala chokhazikika. Chifukwa cha kukhazikika kumeneku, imatha kuyenda m'malo opumira m'malo othamanga. Ngakhale zitha kuwoneka ngati zosatheka kapena kutuluka mwamanja, ma photon amatha kusanthula pamitundu yaying'ono kwambiri komanso yaying'ono kwambiri. Ndiye kuti, tikawona kuwala kwa kuwala kukudutsa pawindo, timadziwa kuti zithunzi zimadutsa pamenepo.

Kuphatikiza apo, ikamadutsa m'malo otulutsa ma radiation yamagetsi, imatero ikasunga mawonekedwe ake onse ndi mphamvu zake. Zomwe, imatha kugwira ntchito ngati mafunde. Mwachitsanzo, ngati titapanganso chojambulidwa ndi mandala owoneka bwino, ma photon amatha kukhala ngati funde. Photonyo ikafika pamutu pambuyo poyenda, imakhalabe tinthu tina tomwe timasunga zonse mphamvu osasintha.

Katundu ndi kupezeka

Khalidwe la photon ngati funde

Ngati titayesa ndi mandala, titha kungowonetsa chithunzi chimodzi panthawi yonse yotsutsa. Mukamayesa kuyesa, mutha kuwona momwe photon imatha kuchita ngati funde ndikudzisokoneza. Komabe, ngakhale imakhala ngati funde, siyimataya zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ikhale tinthu tating'ono. Ndiye kuti, ili ndi malo enaake komanso kuchuluka kwa mayendedwe omwe amatha kuwerengedwa.

Titha kuyeza malo omwe ali nawo ngati funde komanso tinthu tating'ono nthawi yomweyo popeza ndi gawo limodzi lofananalo. Zithunzi izi sizingakhale mumlengalenga.

Zachidziwikire kuti akuganiza kuti ndani akudziwa zomwe ndikunena, chifukwa zonse zimawoneka zovuta. Tiyeni tidziwe bwino momwe photon idapezedwera kuti timveketse zinthu zochepa. Monga tikudziwira, Albert Einstein anali katswiri wasayansi (ngati sichinali chabwino kwambiri nthawi zonse) ndipo adapereka gawo lina la maphunziro ake ku ma photon. Ndi amene adapatsa dzina la particles izi, zomwe adazitcha kuti kuchuluka kwa kuwala.

Izi zidachitika kumayambiriro kwa zaka za zana la XNUMX. Einstein anali kuyesera kufotokoza zoyeserera zomwe sizinkagwirizana ndi kafukufuku yemwe anali ndi kuwunikaku. Ndipo zidaganiziridwa kuti kuwala kumachita ngati mafunde amagetsi pamagetsi osati kuyenda kwa tinthu tomwe timatchedwa ma photon (ngakhale izi zimatha kukhala ngati mafunde).

Ndipamene Einstein amatha kutanthauziranso kuchuluka kwa kuwunika ndikuvomereza kuti mphamvu yomwe kuwala kumakhala nako kumadalira pafupipafupi. Kuphatikiza apo, nkhani yomwe kuwala kumayikidwa komanso ma radiation a magetsi omwe amanyamulidwa ndi ma photon ali mu mgwirizano wamafuta (Chifukwa chake, kuwala kumatha kutentha pamwamba ndi zinthu).

Asayansi omwe athandiza pakupeza photon

Asayansi omwe anaphunzira za photon

Popeza ichi sichinthu chophweka kusanthula ndikufufuza (komanso zochepa ndi ukadaulo womwe udalipo mzaka zam'ma XNUMX ndi koyambirira), zinali chifukwa cha kafukufuku wamafizikiki ofunikira kuti kuwunika kumadziwika ngati tinthu osati mafunde.

M'modzi mwa asayansi a Einstein adadalira kuti apeza lingaliro lake anali Max Planck. Wasayansiyu amayenera kugwira ntchito pazinthu zonse za kuwala komanso adawatanthauzira ndi kufanizira kwa Maxwell. Vuto lomwe sakanatha kulithetsa ndichifukwa chake kuwala komwe kunayikidwa pazinthu kunabwera m'magulu ang'onoang'ono amagetsi.

Pamene Einstein adayambitsa lingaliro lina pokhudzana ndi zomwe anali atazolowera, zimayenera kuyesedwa. Zowonadi, adadziwa kudzera mu mphamvu ya Compton kuti lingaliro loti kuwala kumapangidwa ndi ma photon linali loona.

Ndi nthawi ina mu 1926 wasayansi Gilbert Lewis sintha chipembedzo cha quanta cha kuwala pa photon. Liwu ili limachokera ku liwu lachi Greek loti kuwala, motero ndilabwino kulifotokoza.

Mphamvu ndi ntchito lero

Mitundu yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi

Zithunzi zitha kutulutsidwa m'njira zingapo. Mwachitsanzo, ngati tinthu timathamanga ndi magetsi, kutulutsa kwake kumakhala kosiyana, chifukwa kuli ndi mphamvu zina. Titha kuchotsa photon, kuipangitsa kuti isoweke ndi chidutswa chake. Chiyambire kupezeka kwa asayansi omwe atchulidwawa, kumvetsetsa kwa ma photon kwasintha kwambiri.

Pakadali pano, malamulo a fizikiki ndi ofanana mlengalenga ndi nthawi, kotero maphunziro onse omwe amachitika pazinthu zowunikazi ndi olondola kwambiri. Chifukwa chake, popeza zonse zomwe zimadziwika ndizodziwika bwino, zimagwirira ntchito mawonekedwe apamwamba kwambiri, microscopy ngakhale kwa muyeso wa kutalika kwa ma molekyulu.

Monga mukuwonera, maphunziro osiyanasiyana omwe adachitika zaka zopitilira zana zapitazo amatithandiza kupitiliza kupita patsogolo ndi sayansi masiku ano.


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