Zida zopangira ndi zoteteza

zipangizo zomwe zimayendetsa magetsi

ndi conductive ndi insulating zipangizo amagawidwa malinga ndi khalidwe lawo pokhudzana ndi magetsi. Pali omwe amatha kuyendetsa magetsi ndi ena omwe, m'malo mwake, sangathe kutero. Zidazi zimakhala ndi mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana ndipo zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'magawo osiyanasiyana amakampani ndi kunyumba.

M'nkhaniyi tikuwuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa za zida zopangira ma conductive ndi insulating komanso zomwe aliyense waiwo amapangira.

Zida zopangira ndi zoteteza

conductive ndi insulating zipangizo

Zipangizo zitha kugawidwa m'magulu awiri akuluakulu: kondakitala ndi insulators. Kungakhale kolondola kwambiri kuwatanthauzira ngati makondakitala abwino ndi makondakitala oyipa, kutengera ngati chilichonse chimathandizira kapena chimalepheretsa kuyendetsa. Kugawanikaku kumakhudza momwe matenthedwe amatenthetsera (mwachitsanzo kutentha) kapena kusinthasintha kwamagetsi (mwachitsanzo, kuyenda kwamakono).

Kaya chinthu chimayendetsa magetsi kapena ayi zimatengera kumasuka komwe ma elekitironi amatha kudutsamo. Mapulotoni sasuntha chifukwa, ngakhale amanyamula magetsi, amalumikizana ndi ma protoni ndi ma neutroni mu phata. Ma elekitironi a Valence ali ngati ma exoplanets ozungulira nyenyezi. Amakopeka mokwanira kuti azikhala pamalo, koma Sikuti nthawi zonse zimatengera mphamvu zambiri kuti ziwachotse.

Zitsulo zimataya mosavuta ndikupeza ma elekitironi, kotero amalamulira mndandanda wa okonda. Mamolekyu a organic amakhala ambiri oteteza, makamaka chifukwa amagwiridwa ndi covalent zomangira (ma elekitironi wamba), komanso chifukwa chomangira cha haidrojeni chimathandizira kukhazikika kwa mamolekyu ambiri. Zipangizo zambiri sima conductor abwino kapena ma insulators abwino. Sayendetsa magetsi mosavuta, koma ndi mphamvu zokwanira, ma elekitironi amasuntha.

Zida zina zotetezera zimapezeka mumkhalidwe wangwiro, koma amachita kapena kuchita ngati ali ndi zinthu zazing'ono za chinthu china kapena ngati ali ndi zonyansa. Mwachitsanzo, zoumba zambiri zadothi ndi insulators kwambiri, koma ngati inu kusintha izo, mukhoza kupeza superconductors. Madzi oyera ndi insulator, koma madzi akuda sachita bwino, pomwe madzi amchere okhala ndi ma ion oyandama amayenda bwino.

Kodi conductive material ndi chiyani?

conductive ndi insulating zipangizo

Ma conductor ndi zinthu zomwe zimalola ma electron kuyenda momasuka pakati pa tinthu tating'onoting'ono. Zinthu zopangidwa ndi zinthu zochititsa chidwi zimalola kusuntha kwa ndalama pamtunda wonse wa chinthucho. Ngati mtengo umasamutsidwa ku chinthu pamalo enaake, umagawidwa mofulumira pamtunda wonse wa chinthucho.

Kugawidwa kwa malipiro ndi zotsatira za kayendedwe ka ma electron. Zipangizo zopangira ma elekitironi zimalola ma elekitironi kunyamulidwa kuchokera ku tinthu tating'ono kupita ku chimzake chifukwa chinthu choyipitsidwa nthawi zonse chimagawira mtengo wake mpaka mphamvu yonyansa pakati pa ma elekitironi ochulukirapo ikachepa. Mwanjira imeneyi, ngati kondakitala wachaji akumana ndi chinthu china, kondakitala amathanso kusamutsa mtengo wake ku chinthucho.

Kutengerapo ndalama pakati pa zinthu kumatha kuchitika ngati chinthu chachiwiri chapangidwa ndi zinthu zochititsa chidwi. Makondakitala amalola kutumiza ndalama kudzera pakuyenda kwaulere kwa ma elekitironi.

Kodi semiconductor material ndi chiyani?

zitsulo

Pakati pa zipangizo zopangira timapeza zipangizo zomwe zimakhala ndi ntchito yofanana koma zimatha kukhala zotetezera, ngakhale izi zimadalira zinthu zingapo. Zinthu izi ndi:

  • magetsi
  • maginito
  • kupanikizika
  • zochitika za radiation
  • kutentha kwa chilengedwe chanu

Zida zogwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri za semiconductor ndi silicon, germanium ndipo sulufule yakhala ikugwiritsidwa ntchito posachedwa ngati zida za semiconductor.

Kodi superconducting material ndi chiyani?

Nkhaniyi ndi yochititsa chidwi chifukwa ili ndi mphamvu yachibadwa kuti zinthuzo ziyenera kuyendetsa magetsi, koma pansi pazifukwa zoyenera, popanda kukana kapena kutaya mphamvu.

Nthawi zambiri, resistivity wa zitsulo kondakitala amachepetsa ndi kuchepa kutentha. Pamene kutentha kwakukulu kumafika, kutsutsa kwa superconductor kumatsika kwambiri, koma kumatsimikizira kuti mphamvu mkati ikupitirizabe kuyenda, ngakhale popanda mphamvu. Superconductivity imapangidwa.

Zimapezeka muzinthu zosiyanasiyana, kuphatikizapo ma alloys osavuta monga malata kapena aluminiyamu omwe samawonetsa kukana kwamagetsi, motero amalepheretsa zinthuzo kulowa m'malo ake. Zomwe ndi Meissner zotsatira, zimalola kuti zinthuzo zichotsedwe, kuzisunga.

Kodi insulating material

Mosiyana ndi ma kondakitala, ma insulators ndi zida zomwe zimalepheretsa ma elekitironi kuyenda kwaulere kuchokera ku atomu kupita ku atomu komanso kuchokera ku molekyulu kupita ku molekyulu. Ngati katunduyo wasamutsidwa kwa wodzipatula pamalo enaake, katundu wochuluka udzakhalabe pamalo oyambirira a katunduyo. Tinthu tating'onoting'ono sitilola kuti ma elekitironi aziyenda mwaulere, kotero kuti ndalamazo sizimagawidwa mofanana pamtunda wa zinthu zoteteza.

Ngakhale insulators si zothandiza kutumiza ndalama, kuchitapo kanthu kofunikira pakuyesa kwamagetsi ndi ziwonetsero. Zinthu zowongolera nthawi zambiri zimayikidwa pazinthu zoteteza. Kukonzekera kumeneku kwa ma conductor pamwamba pa insulator kumalepheretsa kusamutsidwa kwa chiwongoladzanja kuchokera ku chinthu choyendetsa kupita kumalo ake, kupewa ngozi monga mabwalo amfupi kapena electrocution. Dongosololi limatithandiza kuwongolera chinthu popanda kuchikhudza.

Chifukwa chake titha kunena kuti zida zoteteza zimagwira ntchito ngati chogwirira cha kokondakita pamwamba pa tebulo labu labu. Mwachitsanzo, ngati chitsulo cha aluminiyamu chingagwiritsidwe ntchito poika zoyeserera, chidebecho chiyenera kuikidwa pamwamba pa kapu ya pulasitiki. Galasiyo imagwira ntchito ngati insulator, kuteteza soda kuti isatayike.

Zitsanzo za Zida Zoyendetsa ndi Zotetezera

Zitsanzo za zinthu zochititsa chidwi ndi izi:

  • kulipira
  • mkuwa
  • golide
  • zotayidwa
  • hierro
  • zitsulo
  • mkuwa
  • mkuwa
  • mercury
  • grafiti
  • madzi a m'nyanja
  • konkriti

Zitsanzo za zipangizo zotetezera ndi izi:

  • magalasi
  • mphira
  • mafuta
  • phula
  • fiberglass
  • dongo
  • ceramic
  • quartz
  • thonje (wouma)
  • pepala (louma)
  • nkhuni zouma)
  • pulasitiki
  • mpweya
  • daimondi
  • madzi oyera
  • chofufutira

Kugawidwa kwazinthu m'magulu a ma conductor ndi ma insulators ndi chinthu chogawanika. Ndikoyenera kwambiri kuyika mfundozo penapake potsatira.

Ziyenera kumveka kuti sizinthu zonse zoyendetsera zinthu zomwe zili ndi madulidwe ofanana, ndipo sizinthu zonse zotetezera zomwe zimatsutsana ndi kayendedwe ka ma electron. Conductivity ndi ofanana ndi kuwonekera kwa zinthu zina kuti ziume.: Zida zomwe "zimadutsa" kuwala zimatchedwa "transparent", pamene zomwe "zimadutsa" zimatchedwa "opaque". Komabe, sizinthu zonse zowonekera zomwe zimakhala ndi mawonekedwe ofanana. Zomwezo zimapitanso kwa oyendetsa magetsi, ena ndi abwino kuposa ena.

Omwe ali ndi ma conductivity apamwamba, omwe amadziwika kuti superconductors, amaikidwa pamapeto amodzi ndipo zipangizo zochepetsera zowonongeka zimayikidwa kumapeto kwina. Monga mukuonera pamwambapa, chitsulo chidzayikidwa pafupi kwambiri conductive mapeto, pamene galasi adzaikidwa pa mapeto ena a continuum. Ma conductivity a zitsulo amatha kukhala thililiyoni kuwirikiza kawiri kuposa galasi.

Kutentha kumakhudzanso madulidwe. Pamene kutentha kumawonjezeka, maatomu ndi ma elekitironi amapeza mphamvu. Ma kondakitala ena, monga magalasi, amakhala opanda ma conductor pakazizira, komabe ma conductor abwino kukatentha. Zitsulo zambiri zimakhala zokonda bwino.. Amalola kuziziritsa komanso ma conductor oyipa pakatentha. Makondakitala ena abwino apezeka mu superconductors pa kutentha kotsika kwambiri.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za zida zopangira ma conductive ndi insulating.


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