Chomera cha Cofrentes

Chomera cha Cofrentes

Tinapita kutauni ya Cofrentes, ku Valencia, kukachezera malo opangira zida za nyukiliya omwe amapatsa mphamvu ku Spain. Chomera cha Cofrentes cha nyukiliya Ili ndi 100% ya Iberdrola Generación Nuclear SA. Chomera cha nyukiliya ichi chakhala ndi zochitika zambiri zomwe zapangitsa kuti chikhale chandamale cha akatswiri azachilengedwe komanso osokoneza mphamvu za nyukiliya. Oyang'anira chomera amayang'aniridwa ndi mfundo ndi kudzipereka zomwe zavomerezedwa ndi Board of Directors of Iberdrola.

M'nkhaniyi tifufuza zonse zomwe chomera cha nyukiliya chimapanga. Tiyamba ndikufotokozera momwe zimagwirira ntchito komanso kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe zimathandizira pa gridi yamagetsi yaku Spain. Pomaliza, tikambirana zochitika zofunika kwambiri zomwe mudakhalapo mpaka pano. Kodi mukufuna kudziwa za chomera cha Cofrentes mozama? Muyenera kupitiliza kuwerenga 🙂

Zolinga za chomera chamagetsi cha Cofrentes

Iberdrola mwini wa Cofrentes

Malingaliro amakampani ndi zolinga zake zikutsata zolinga zikuluzikulu, zomwe ndi izi:

  • Sungani malo opangira mphamvu za nyukiliya kuti akhale abwino.
  • Sungani chitetezo chabwino ndikusintha ukadaulo kuti uzikhala wogwira ntchito nthawi zonse.
  • Phunzitsani ogwira nawo ntchito pangozi yantchito kuti apewe ngozi zomwe zingachitike.
  • Pangani ndondomeko zomwe zimathandiza ogwira ntchito kukhala ndi zokumana nazo zawo komanso zakunja kwa likulu.
  • Adziwitseni atolankhani moona mtima komanso momasuka za momwe mbewu ziliri pakadali pano. Mwanjira imeneyi, malingaliro amtundu wa anthu atha kupangidwa ndipo magulu onse achidwi adzadziwitsidwa.

Makhalidwe aukadaulo

Momwe nyukiliya imagwirira ntchito

Chomera cha Cofrentes chogwiritsa ntchito zida za nyukiliya mphamvu yamagetsi ya 1.092MW. Izi zimapangitsa kuti ikhale imodzi mwazinthu zazikulu kwambiri ku Spain konse. Imakhala ndi mtundu wamadzi otentha wa BWR. Ndimayendedwe amadzi oyenda molunjika. Izi zikutanthauza kuti pali chinthu chimodzi chokha chamadzimadzi kapena chozizira chomwe chimapangitsa kuti pakhale mpweya wabwino.

Komanso chapakati chokha izo ndi za iwo otchedwa a m'badwo wachiwiri. Zomera zina zonse zimagwiritsa ntchito makina opanikizika, pomwe izi zikuwotcha.

Kugwiritsa ntchito chomera chamagetsi cha Cofrentes

Tigawa mafotokozedwe akugwira ntchito kwa chomera cha nyukiliya m'magawo. Gawo lirilonse liyenera kukumbukiridwa kuti pali njira zosakhwima.

Mafuta ogwiritsidwa ntchito

ureniamu

Kuti mupeze mphamvu, dongosololi limafunikira makina opangira nthunzi. Makinawa omwe amachititsa kuti nthunzi ikhale yopanda kanthu koma mphamvu yanyukiliya. Imaikidwa pakati pazinthu zothandizira ndi zowongolera mkati mwa chotengera chapanikizika. Ndi apa pomwe amapangidwira kutulutsa nyukiliya ma atomu a uranium. Njirayi imayamba kutentha kwambiri mpaka madzi atuluka.

Pochita izi mafuta omwe amadziwika kuti 4,2% yalemeretsa uranium. Ndi chinthu cha ceramic chomwe chimatha kupirira kutentha kwambiri komanso kutentha kwambiri kwa radiation. Timakumbukira kuti cheza ndi chowopsa kwa anthu ndipo kuti ngakhale atakhala pang'ono pang'ono chitha kukhala chowopsa. Ceramic ichi chimapezeka mu dzenje lopanda zircaloy-2 (zirconium alloy) ndodo zomwe zimagawidwa m'magulu a ndodo za 11 × 11. Izi ndi zomwe zimapangitsa kupanga zinthu kukhala kosavuta kusamalira.

Masitepe kuti mupeze mphamvu

Ogwira ntchito zamagetsi a nyukiliya

Masitepe omwe amatsatiridwa kuti apeze mphamvu ndi awa.

  1. Chinthu choyamba ndikutulutsa kutentha kwa madzi mkati mwa riyakitala. Madzi amayenda kupita kumtunda pakati. Zircaloy ndodo zimatenthedwa ndi kutulutsa kwa ma atomu a uranium ndipo zimatha kupanga pafupifupi 1,6 Tm pamphindikati wa nthunzi yodzaza. Mpweyawo umasiyanitsidwa ndi gawo lamadzi ndikuuma kumtunda kwa chotengera cha riyakitala. Kenako ikupitilira kukulira ku makina othamanga kwambiri.
  2. Mpweya wotentha yauma ndi kutenthetsedwa kachiwiri mu heaters awiri ndi dryer chinyezi.
  3. Mpweya wotentha kwambiri ndi wouma pamapeto pake umavomerezedwa ndi matupi awiri ochepera a chopangira mphamvu pomwe kukula kwake kumathera mpaka kupanikizika kwa 75mm gawo la mercury mtheradi. Pomaliza, imatumizidwa kwa wopondereza wapawiri pomwe amasinthidwa kukhala madzi kuti abwezeretse ku riyakitala kudzera mumachitidwe obwezeretsa.

Mphamvu yamagetsi yomwe chopangira mphamvuyo imasandulika kukhala mphamvu yamagetsi chimodzimodzi momwe zimachitikira mu chomera chamagetsi. Kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe zimapangidwa kumagwiritsidwa ntchito ndikupititsidwa kuma transformer akulu amodzi.

Kuzirala kwa chomeracho kumachitika mozungulira pogwiritsa ntchito nsanja ziwiri zachilengedwe. Nsanjazo zimakhala ndi kukula kwa 129 mita kutalika ndi 90 mita m'munsi mwake. Mu nsanja izi momwe madzi amafika kudzera pa chitoliro chotsekedwa ndipo amaziziritsa mwa kuziphatikiza ndi mpweya womwe ukukwera. Mulingo wamphamvu ya riyakitala umayendetsedwa ndi mapampu oyeserera ndi ndodo zowongolera zomwe zimalowa mkati kuchokera pansi.

Zochitika zamagetsi anyukiliya

Omenyera ufulu wawo akufuna kuti chomera cha nyukiliya chitsekedwe

M'chaka cha 2017 Zochitika 10 zidalembetsedwa zomwe zidakakamiza chomeracho kutseka. Chowopsa kwambiri chinali kuwonongeka komwe kudamupangitsa mu Disembala gulu la 1 ("anomaly") mu International Scale of Nuclear and Radiological Events (INES) a Nuclear Safety Council (CSN).

Ma Turbines ndi mayendedwe adalephera ndipo chomera cha nyukiliya chimayenera kuzimitsidwa nthawi zambiri. Ndipo ndikuti zida zamagetsi zomwe zimagwirira ntchito, General magetsi, ndizo mtundu womwewo monga Fukushima wolimba. Ili ndi dongosolo lofananira. Popeza kulephera kopitilira pambuyo pa zaka 35 zautumiki (akuyenera kukhala ndi moyo wazaka pafupifupi 40) Iberdrola akufuna kupitiliza kuigwiritsa ntchito.

Oteteza zachilengedwe akulirira kutsekedwa kwa malo opangira zida za nyukiliya kuti apewe zovuta zomwe zingachitike monga Chernobyl kapena Fukushima.

Zinthu sizikufotokozedwa bwino ndipo zinthu zomwe zimalephera ndizofunikira pakuchita kwa chomeracho.

Tiyeni tiyembekezere kuti malo opangira zida za nyukiliya a Cofrentes sayambitsa vuto lalikulu komanso kuti amachita zinthu bwino.

 


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