Makina amphepo

kusintha kwa minda yamphepo

Mphamvu ya mphepo ndi imodzi mwazinthu zofunikira kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi zamagetsi omwe amatha. Chifukwa chake, tiyenera kudziwa bwino momwe imagwirira ntchito. Pulogalamu ya chopangira mphepo Ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zofunika kwambiri zamtunduwu wamphamvu. Imagwira bwino ntchito ndipo pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana yama turbine kutengera famu ya mphepo komwe tili.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa za makina amphepo, mawonekedwe ake ndi momwe amagwirira ntchito.

Kodi chopangira mphepo ndi chiyani

makhalidwe chopangira mphamvu ya mphepo

Chingwe chopangira mphepo ndi makina osinthira mphamvu ya mphepo kukhala magetsi. Makina amphepo amapangidwa kutembenuza mphamvu zakuthambo za mphepo kukhala zamagetsi, ndiko kuyenda kwa olamulira. Kenako, mu chopangira mphamvu, mphamvu yamakina iyi imasandutsidwa mphamvu yamagetsi. Magetsi opangidwa amatha kusungidwa mu batri kapena kugwiritsidwa ntchito mwachindunji.

Pali malamulo atatu ofunikira a fizikiki omwe amayang'anira mphamvu yomwe ilipo ya mphepo. Lamulo loyamba limanena kuti mphamvu zopangidwa ndi chopangira mphamvu ndizofanana ndi liwiro la mphepo. Lamulo lachiwiri likuti mphamvu zomwe zilipo ndizofanana ndi dera lomwe lasesedwa. Mphamvuyo njofanana ndi lalikulu la kutalika kwa tsamba. Lamulo lachitatu likutsimikiza kuti magwiridwe antchito a mphepo ndi 59%.

Mosiyana ndi makina amphepo akale a Castilla La Mancha kapena Netherlands, m'makina amphepo amenewa mphepo imakankhira masamba kuti azungulire, ndipo makina amakono opangira mphepo amagwiritsa ntchito njira zovuta kwambiri zamagetsi kuti atenge mphamvu ya mphepo moyenera. M'malo mwake, chifukwa chomwe makina amphepo amasunthira masamba ake ndi ofanana ndi chifukwa chake ndege imakhala mlengalenga, ndipo chifukwa cha zochitika zathupi.

M'magetsi opangira mphepo, mitundu iwiri ya magulu othamangitsa amapangidwa mu makina ozungulira: umodzi umatchedwa thrust, womwe umayang'ana kutsogolo kwa kayendedwe ka mphepo, ndipo winayo umatchedwa kukoka, komwe kumafanana ndi komwe mphepo imayendera.

Kapangidwe ka masamba amtunduwu ndi ofanana kwambiri ndi mapiko a ndege ndipo amakhala ngati omaliza m'malo amphepo. Pa mapiko a ndege, malo ake ena amakhala ozungulira kwambiri, pomwe inayo ndi yosalala. Mpweya ukamazungulira kupyola mphero za kapangidwe kameneka, mpweya womwe umadutsa pamalo osalala umachedwa pang'onopang'ono kuposa momwe mpweya umadutsa mozungulira. Kusiyanaku kwakanthawi kumabweretsa kusiyanasiyana, komwe kuli bwino pamalo osalala kuposa kuzungulira kuzungulira.

Chotsatira chake ndi mphamvu yomwe imagwira ntchito yosalala pamapiko a thruster. Chodabwitsachi chimatchedwa "Venturi effect", chomwe ndi chimodzi mwazomwe zimayambitsa "kukweza", komwe kenako, ikufotokoza chifukwa chake ndegeyo imakhala mlengalenga.

Mkati mwa magudumu amphepo

chopangira mphepo

Masamba amphepo yamagetsi amagwiritsanso ntchito njirazi kuti ziziyendetsa mozungulira mozungulira. Mapangidwe amtundu wamasamba amathandizira kasinthasintha m'njira yabwino kwambiri. Mkati mwa jenereta, njira yosinthira mphamvu yozungulira ya tsamba mu mphamvu yamagetsi imachitika mwa lamulo la Faraday. Iyenera kuphatikizapo rotor yomwe imazungulira mothandizidwa ndi mphepo, yolumikizidwa ndi chosinthira, ndikusintha mphamvu zamagetsi zamagetsi zamagetsi.

Zinthu za chopangira mphepo

mphamvu ya mphepo

Ntchito zomwe zimayendetsedwa ndi chinthu chilichonse ndi izi:

  • Zoyendetsa: Amasonkhanitsa mphamvu za mphepo ndikuzisandutsa mphamvu zamakina zosinthasintha. Ngakhalenso kuthamanga kwa mphepo yotsika kwambiri, kapangidwe kake ndikofunikira pakusintha. Zitha kuwonedwa kuchokera pomwe tidafotokozera kuti kapangidwe ka tsamba ndichinsinsi chowonetsetsa kuti kasinthasintha kazungulira.
  • Chopangira mphamvu chopangira kapena dongosolo thandizo: sinthani kayendedwe kazitsulo kazitsulo kuti kayendedwe kazitsulo kazitsulo kazitsulo kamene kamagwirizanako.
  • Kuchulukitsa kapena gearbox: Pa liwiro labwinobwino la mphepo (pakati pa 20-100 km / h), liwiro la rotor ndilotsika, mozungulira kusintha kwa 10-40 pamphindi (rpm); Kuti apange magetsi, rotor ya jenereta iyenera kuti ikugwira ntchito pa 1.500 rpm, chifukwa chake nacelle iyenera kukhala ndi makina osinthira liwiro kuchoka pamtengo woyamba kupita pamtengo wotsiriza. Izi zimakwaniritsidwa ndi makina ofanana ndi bokosi lamagige mu injini yamagalimoto, yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito magiya angapo kutembenuza gawo losunthira la jenereta liwiro loyenera kupanga magetsi. Mulinso mabuleki oletsa kutembenuza kwa makina ozungulira pamene mphepo imakhala yamphamvu kwambiri (yopitilira 80-90 km / h), yomwe imatha kuwononga gawo lililonse la jenereta.
  • Jenereta: Ndi msonkhano wa rotor-stator womwe umapanga mphamvu zamagetsi, zomwe zimafalikira ku substation kudzera pazingwe zomwe zimayikidwa mu nsanja yomwe imagwirizira nacelle, kenako ndikulowetsedwa mu netiweki. Mphamvu yamagetsi imasiyanasiyana pakati pa 5 kW ya turbine yapakatikati ndi 5 MW ya turbine yayikulu kwambiri, ngakhale kuli kale ma 10 MW turbines.
  • Zojambula zamagalimoto: Amalola zigawo kuti zizizungulira kuti ziike nacelle mbali ya mphepo yomwe ilipo.
  • Support mlongoti: Ndiwoupangiri wopanga wa jenereta. Kukula kwa mphamvu ya chopangira mphamvu, kutalika kwake kwa masamba ndi, chifukwa chake, kutalika kwakutali komwe nacelle iyenera kukhala. Izi zikuwonjezera zovuta zina pakupanga nsanja, zomwe ziyenera kuthandizira kulemera kwa jenereta. Tsambalo liyeneranso kukhala lolimba mwamphamvu kuti lingathe kupirira mphepo yamkuntho popanda kuphwanya.
  • Paddles ndi anemometers: zida zomwe zili kumbuyo kwa gondola zomwe zimakhala ndi magudumu; Amazindikira kulowera ndi kuyeza kuthamanga kwa mphepo, ndikuyesanso masamba kuti athane nawo pomwe liwiro la mphepo limapitirira malire. Pamwambapa, pali chiopsezo chamapangidwe. Izi kawirikawiri ndimapangidwe amtundu wa Savonious.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za makina amphepo ndi mawonekedwe ake.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

Khalani oyamba kuyankha

Siyani ndemanga yanu

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa. Amafuna minda amalembedwa ndi *

*

*

  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.