Mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndiyabwino kwambiri

mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndiyabwino kwambiri kuposa zonse

Tikamalankhula za mitundu yonse yamagetsi yomwe ilipo, timakambirana za omwe ali othandiza kwambiri, osavuta kutulutsa, omwe ali ndi mphamvu yayikulu kwambiri komanso, omwe ndi otetezeka kwambiri. Ngakhale zili zotsutsana ndi chilichonse chomwe chimakhulupirira mpaka pano, mphamvu yotetezeka kwambiri yomwe ilipo masiku ano ndi nyukiliya.

Kodi izi zingakhale bwanji zoona? Pambuyo pa chochitika cha Chernobyl mu 1986 chodziwika kuti tsoka lalikulu kwambiri la nyukiliya m'mbiri komanso ngozi yaposachedwa ku Fukushima mu 2011, zonse zokhudzana ndi mphamvu ya nyukiliya, ndizovuta kukhulupirira kuti mphamvu iyi ndiye yotetezeka kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Komabe, tikupatsani umboni wotsimikizira kuti izi zili chomwecho. Kodi mukufuna kudziwa chifukwa chake mphamvu za nyukiliya ndi zotetezeka kuposa zonse?

Kupanga zamagetsi ndi chitukuko cha zachuma

mphamvu ya nyukiliya ikukanidwa padziko lonse lapansi

Pakukula kwachuma mdziko, kupanga ndi kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ndizofunikira kwambiri pakukweza miyoyo yathu yonse. Ngakhale kupanga mphamvu sikumangolumikizidwa ndi zabwino zokha, chifukwa zimatha kubweretsanso ku zotsatira zoyipa zaumoyo. Mwachitsanzo, Kupanga mphamvu kumatha kukhala chifukwa cha kufa komanso kudwala kwambiri. M'chigawo chino timaphatikizaponso ngozi zomwe zingachitike popanga zinthu zopangira, kukonza ndi kupanga komanso kuwonongeka komwe kungachitike.

Cholinga chopangidwa ndi asayansi ndikutulutsa mphamvu zochepa zomwe zingakhudze thanzi ndi chilengedwe. Kuti tichite izi, ndi mphamvu yanji yomwe tiyenera kugwiritsa ntchito? Timayerekezera mphamvu zomwe zagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi monga malasha, mafuta, gasi, biomass ndi mphamvu za nyukiliya. Mu 2014, Izi zowonjezera zamagetsi zimakhala pafupifupi 96% ya mphamvu zapadziko lonse lapansi.

Chitetezo champhamvu

magwiridwe antchito a radioactivity amawononga thanzi la munthu nthawi yayitali

Pali nthawi ziwiri zofunikira kuti muzitha kuwerengera ndi kufa kapena ngozi zomwe zingachitike pakupanga mphamvu. Kutengera izi, kuchuluka kwa ngozi komwe kutulutsa mphamvu zamtundu wina kapena zina, kwa anthu komanso chilengedwe.

Nthawi yoyamba ndi yochepa kapena generational. Izi zimapangidwa ndi imfa zomwe zimakhudzana ndi ngozi pakupanga, kukonza kapena kupanga gawo lamagetsi. Ponena za chilengedwe, kuwonongeka kwa kayendedwe ka mpweya komwe amakhala nako popanga, kuyendetsa komanso kuyaka kumawunikiridwa.

Chimango chachiwiri ndi zotsatira zazitali kapena zapakati pa mibadwo monga masoka monga Chernobyl kapena zovuta zakusintha kwanyengo.

Pofufuza zotsatira zomwe zapezeka chifukwa cha kufa komwe kumadza chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa mpweya ndi ngozi, zimawoneka momwe imfayo yokhudzana ndi kuipitsa mpweya ndiyambiri. Pankhani ya malasha, mafuta ndi gasi, zikuyimira kuposa 99% yakufa.

Mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndi yomwe imapha anthu ochepa kwambiri popanga

Chiwerengero cha imfa zomwe zimachitika chifukwa cha kupangidwa kwamitundu yamagetsi

Kuchuluka kwa sulfure dioxide ndi nayitrogeni oxides zilipo mu mphamvu yotengedwa kuchokera kumagetsi opangira malasha. Mpweya uwu ndizomwe zimayambitsa ozoni ndi kuipitsa tinthu tina zomwe zingakhudze thanzi la munthu, ngakhale atakhala ochepa. Izi particles alipo chitukuko cha kupuma ndi matenda a mtima.

Kufufuza zaimfa zokhudzana ndi mphamvu za nyukiliya, Tikuwona kuti pali ma 442 ochepa omwe amafa poyerekeza ndi malasha pa gawo limodzi lamagetsi. Tiyenera kudziwa kuti ziwerengerozi zimaganiziranso zakufa komwe kumachitika chifukwa cha khansa chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu za nyukiliya.

Kusamalira zinyalala za nyukiliya

zinyalala za nyukiliya zili ndi kasamalidwe kovuta

Kuopsa kwakukulu kwa mphamvu ya nyukiliya pakapita nthawi ndikuti zoyenera kuchita komanso momwe mungasamalire zinyalala za nyukiliya. Ndizovuta kuthana ndi zinyalala za nyukiliya, chifukwa kwa zaka zambiri apitiliza kutulutsa ma radiation ambiri. Nthawi yodera nkhawa za zinyalala imayamba zaka 10.000 mpaka 1 miliyoni. Chifukwa chake, tigawa zotsalazo m'magulu atatu: zotsalira zotsika, zapakatikati komanso zapamwamba. Mphamvu zomwe zilipo kuti zithetse zotsalira zazing'ono komanso zapakatikati nthawi zambiri zimakhazikika. Zinyalala zotsika kwambiri zimatha kupindika bwinobwino, kuwotcheredwa ndi moto ndikuikidwa m'manda osaya. Zinyalala zapakatikati, zomwe zimakhala ndi ma radioactivity ochulukirapo, zimayenera kutetezedwa mu phula musanazichotse.

Vutoli limayamba pomwe zinyalala zapamwamba zimayenera kuyendetsedwa bwino. Zinthu zimakhala zovuta kwambiri, popeza kukhala ndi moyo wautali komanso kuchuluka kwa mphamvu yamagetsi yanyukiliya zikutanthauza kuti zinyalala siziyenera kungotetezedwa moyenera, komanso kukhala m'malo okhazikika kwazaka miliyoni. Kodi mungapeze bwanji malo okhazikika osungira zinyalala kwazaka miliyoni? Zomwe zimachitidwa nthawi zambiri ndikusunga zotsalazo m'malo osungidwa mwachilengedwe. Kuvuta kwa izi kukugona pakupeza malo ozama a geological momwe angasungidwe mosakhazikika ndipo sakuipitsa malo ake. Kuphatikiza apo, siziyenera kukhala pachiwopsezo ku thanzi la munthu. Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti tikulankhula za nyengo yazaka miliyoni ndi malo amiyala, ngakhale atakhazikika bwanji, amasinthasintha kutentha ndi madzi, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zisakhazikike kwa nthawi yayitali.

Imfa chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo

Zotsatira zakusintha kwanyengo monga kukwera kwamadzi

Monga tanenera kale, kupanga mphamvu sikuti kumangokhala ndi zovuta zazing'ono zomwe zimakhudzana ndi ngozi ndi kuipitsa. Zimakhudzanso thanzi lathu komanso chilengedwe. Chimodzi mwazinthu zodziwika bwino kwanthawi yayitali pakupanga mphamvu ndi kutentha kwanyengo. Zomwe zimadziwika kwambiri pakusintha kwanyengo ndikusintha kwanyengo komwe kumapangitsa nyengo kukhala yovuta kwambiri, kuwonjezeka kwanthawi yayitali komanso kulimba kwanyengo, kukwera kwamadzi, kuchepa kwa madzi abwino, zokolola zochepa, ndi zina zambiri. Izi zimasintha zinthu zonse zachilengedwe padziko lapansi ndikusintha magome.

Ndizovuta kunena kuti anthu amwalira chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo, chifukwa, kukhala kwanthawi yayitali, ndizovuta kufotokoza. Komabe, kuwonjezeka kwa imfa zomwe zimayambitsidwa ndi mafunde otentha kwambiri komanso pafupipafupi zimawonekera, ndipo izi zachitika chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo.

Pofotokoza zakufa kuchokera pakusintha kwanyengo ndikupanga magetsi, timagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu ya kaboni, yomwe imayesa magalamu a carbon dioxide (CO2) omwe amapangidwa popanga ola limodzi la mphamvu (gCO2e pa kWh). Pogwiritsa ntchito chizindikirochi, titha kuganiza kuti magetsi omwe ali ndi mphamvu yayikulu ya kaboni angakhudze kwambiri kuchuluka kwa anthu omwalira chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo pamlingo wina wake.

Zowonjezera mphamvu zopanda chitetezo m'kanthawi kochepa ndizosatetezeka m'kupita kwanthawi. M'malo mwake, mphamvu zotetezeka m'badwo wapano ndizotetezanso m'mibadwo yamtsogolo. Mafuta ndi malasha zimawonongeka kwambiri pakanthawi kochepa komanso nthawi yayitali, komanso zimawononga mpweya. Komabe, mphamvu za nyukiliya ndi zotsalira zazomera sizigwiritsa ntchito kwambiri mpweya, pafupifupi 83 ndi 55 nthawi zocheperapo kuposa malasha kuti akhale ofanana, motsatana.

Chifukwa chake, mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndiyotsika pang'ono pakufa kwakanthawi kochepa komanso kwakanthawi kochepa kokhudzana ndi kupanga magetsi. Zikuwerengedwa kuti mpaka imfa miliyoni 1,8 yokhudzana ndi kuipitsa mpweya yomwe idapewa pakati pa 1971 ndi 2009 chifukwa chopanga mphamvu zamagetsi ndi zida za nyukiliya m'malo mwa njira zina.

Mapeto a chitetezo champhamvu

Tsoka ku Chernobyl ku 1986

Chernobyl zaka 30 pambuyo pa ngozi ya nyukiliya

Ponena za chitetezo champhamvu munyukiliya, mafunso amabuka monga: ndi angati omwe adamwalira chifukwa cha zochitika za nyukiliya ku Chernobyl ndi Fukushima? Powombetsa mkota: Chiyerekezo chimasiyana koma kuchuluka kwa omwe adamwalira ku Chernobyl akuyenera kukhala makumi khumi. Kwa Fukushima, anthu ambiri amafa akuyembekezeka kukhala okhudzana ndi kupsinjika komwe kumachitika chifukwa chakuchoka (mwa anthu 1600) m'malo mowunikira ma radiation.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti zochitika ziwirizi ndizodziyimira pawokha ngakhale zovuta zawo zakhala zazikulu. Komabe, polingalira zaka zonsezi, chiwerengero cha omwalira pangozi ziwirizi ndi chotsikirako poyerekeza ndi anthu onse omwe amwalira chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa mpweya kuchokera kuzinthu zina zamagetsi monga mafuta ndi malasha. Bungwe Loona za Umoyo pa Dziko Lonse linanena kuti 3 miliyoni amafa chaka chilichonse chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa mpweya kozungulira ndi 4,3 miliyoni chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa mpweya m'nyumba.

Izi zikutsutsana pamaganizidwe a anthu, chifukwa zochitika ku Chernobyl ndi Fukushima zakhala masoka odziwika padziko lonse lapansi komanso mitu yamanyuzipepala kwanthawi yayitali. Komabe, anthu omwe amafa chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa mpweya amakhala chete ndipo palibe amene amadziwa zotsatira zake mwatsatanetsatane.

tsoka la fukushima lidachitika mu 2011

Ngozi ya nyukiliya ku Fukushima

Kutengera ndi zomwe zikuchitika pakadali pano komanso mbiri yakale ya anthu omwe amwalira ndi mphamvu zamagetsi, mphamvu ya nyukiliya ikuwoneka kuti ndi yomwe idawononga kwambiri magwero akulu amagetsi masiku ano. Chowonadi chotsimikizika ichi chimatsutsana kwambiri ndi malingaliro amtundu wa anthu, pomwe kuthandizira pagulu mphamvu yamagetsi nthawi zambiri kumakhala kotsika chifukwa chachitetezo.

Thandizo pagulu pakupanga mphamvu zowonjezeredwa ndilolimba kwambiri kuposa mafuta. Kusintha kwathu kwapadziko lonse lapansi ku makina amagetsi omwe adzawonjezeredwe kudzatenga nthawi yambiri, nthawi yayitali pomwe tiyenera kupanga zisankho zofunikira pazomwe zingapangire magetsi. Chitetezo cha magetsi athu chiyenera kukhala chofunikira pakuwunika njira zomwe tikufuna kusintha.


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  1.   cesar zavaleta anati

    Ndi mphamvu yopindulitsa kwambiri komanso yoyipitsa pang'ono poyerekeza ndi (malasha, gasi ndi mafuta) ili ndi anthu ochepa kwambiri omwe amafa kasanu ndi kawiri poyerekeza ndi malasha ndi mafuta pamagawo amagetsi poganizira ngozi za Fukushima ndi Chernobyl. Choopsa ndi momwe tingasamalire zinyalala za nyukiliya mosamala chifukwa zinyalala izi zipitiliza kutulutsa ma radiation ambiri kwa zaka zambiri (zaka 442 mpaka 10000 miliyoni) zowopsa kwambiri ndi zinyalala zapamwamba zomwe ziyenera kutetezedwa m'malo otetezedwa .

  2.   Rana anati

    Zikomo, ndimathandiza mnzanga wochokera kuzilumba za Canary pantchito yake ndi Mabomba a Nyukiliya.