Ngozi ya nyukiliya ku Chernobyl

Imodzi mwa ngozi zoopsa kwambiri za nyukiliya m'mbiri yonse komanso yodziwika padziko lonse lapansi ndi ngozi ya Chernobyl. Ikuonedwa kuti ndi ngozi yoopsa kwambiri ya zida za nyukiliya m'mbiri ndipo, ngakhale lero, pali zotsatirapo kwa zomera, nyama komanso anthu. Ngoziyi idachitika pa Epulo 26, 1986 ndipo pali zotsatirapo zake. Tsoka ili linali mphindi yotsegulira Cold War komanso mbiri ya mphamvu za nyukiliya. Asayansi akuganiza kuti malo ozungulira nyukiliya yonseyo sadzakhalamo kwa zaka 20.000.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zonse zomwe zidachitika ndi zomwe zidachitika chifukwa cha tsoka ku Chernobyl.

Zomwe zidachitika ku Chernobyl

Chernobyl itachitika ngoziyi

Ngozi iyi ya nyukiliya idachitika pafupi ndi mzinda wa Chernobyl ku USSR wakale. Mzindawu udapereka ndalama zambiri mu zida za nyukiliya nkhondo yachiwiri yapadziko lonse itatha. Zinali kuyambira 1977 pomwe asayansi aku Soviet anali kuyang'anira ikani makina anayi a zida za nyukiliya ku RBMK pachomera chamagetsi. Chomera cha nyukiliyachi chili pamalire apakati pa Ukraine ndi Belarus.

Ngoziyi idayamba ndikuphunzitsidwa kukonza makina achinayi a makina anyukiliya. Ogwira ntchito anali ndi lingaliro logwiritsa ntchito nthawi yomwe anali okangalika kuti athe kuyesa ngati makinawo atha kuziziritsa ngati chomera chikasiyidwa chopanda magetsi amtundu uliwonse. Monga tikudziwira, chiyambi cha kuphulika kwa nyukiliya kumachitika chifukwa chakutha kwa zida za nyukiliya kuziziritsa mpaka kuzizira komwe kulibe magetsi.

Komabe, panthawi yoyesa kuzizira, Ogwira ntchito akuphwanya malamulo ena achitetezo ndipo izi mwadzidzidzi zinawonjezera mphamvu mkati mwa chomeracho. Ngakhale adayesa kutseka makinawo, panali kuwonjezeranso kwina kwamphamvu komwe kunayambitsa kuphulika kwamphamvu mkati. Potsirizira pake, chojambulira chija chinawululidwa ndipo zida zambiri za radioactive zidathamangitsidwa mumlengalenga.

Miyezi ingapo kuchokera pomwe Reactor 4 ku Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant idayaka moto yomwe inali poyizoni, inali yokutidwa ndi konkriti wambiri komanso chitsulo kuti muzikhala zinthu zonse zowononga mkati. Nyumbayi yakale idayikidwa m'manda kuti iteteze kukula kwa radiation. Zaka zingapo zapitazo, mu 2016, idalimbikitsidwa ndi chidebe china chatsopano kotero kuti masiku ano zinthu zowulutsa ma radio sizikuwonekeranso.

Ndipo ndikuti radiation imakhalapobe m'mlengalenga kwazaka zambiri. Pachifukwa ichi, kumakhala kofunikira kwambiri kuteteza poyambira kuti radiation isatulutsidwe.

Tsoka la nyukiliya

Tsoka la nyukiliya lidayamba pomwe mayendedwe onse amtunduwu adayambitsa kuphulika mkati mwa fakitale yamagetsi. Ozimitsa moto ayesa kuzimitsa moto zingapo ndipo pamapeto pake, ma helikopita adataya mchenga ndi zida zina poyesa kuzimitsa moto ndikuipitsa. Anthu awiri anaphedwa pa nthawi ya kuphulikaku ndipo anthu ambiri ogwira ntchito komanso ozimitsa moto agonekedwa mchipatala. Komabe, kuopsa kwa kugwa kwa radioactive ndi moto kunalipo. Palibe amene anasamutsidwa m'malo oyandikana nawo, ngakhale mumzinda wapafupi wa Pripiat. Mzindawu udamangidwa kuti ukhale anthu onse ogwira ntchito mmalowo. Panali patadutsa maola 36 chichitikireni ngoziyo kuti malowo adayamba kusamutsidwa.

Kuwululidwa kwa ngozi ya nyukiliya kudawoneka ngati chiwopsezo chachikulu pandale, koma kunali kochedwa kwambiri ndipo sikungabisike. Kugwa kumeneku kunali kutafalitsa kale ma radiation ku Sweden, komwe oyang'anira pa nyukiliya ina adayamba kudabwa zomwe zikuchitika ku USSR. Atakana ngoziyo poyamba, Asovieti adamaliza kulengeza pa Epulo 28.

Poyang'anizana ndi ngozi ya nyukiliya yotereyi, dziko lonse lapansi lidayamba kuzindikira kuti likuwona chochitika chosaiwalika. Mpaka 30% ya uranium yonse yamatani okwana 190 ku Chernobyl inali m'mlengalenga. Ndipamene Adaganiza zosamutsa anthu 335.000 ndipo malo opatula makilomita 30 adakhazikitsidwa mozungulira riyakitala.

Zotsatira za ngozi yaku Chernobyl

Pachiyambi, monga zidachitikira ngoziyi yapha anthu 28 ndipo oposa 100 avulala. Asayansi a United Nations Scientific Committee for the Study of the Effects of Atomic Radiation alengeza kuti oposa 6.000 ana ndi achinyamata adadwala khansa ya chithokomiro atakumana ndi radiation kuchokera ku zida za nyukiliya. Ndipo ndiye kuti ngoziyi idadzetsa tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe tinapatsa malo owoneka bwino. Komabe, tinthu tating'onoting'ono timene timakhala ndi ma radioactivity, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti nzika za Pripiat ziwoneke ndi ma radiation ambiri omwe adayambitsa mapangidwe.

Chiwerengero anthu pafupifupi 4.000 adakumana ndi ma radiation ambiri ndipo chifukwa chake khansa ikhoza kuchitika imalumikizidwa ndi cheza ichi. Zotsatira zonse za ngoziyi, kuwonjezera zomwe zimakhudza thanzi lam'mutu ndi mibadwo yotsatira, zikupitilirabe kukhala zofunika kwambiri ndikupitilizabe kukhala mtsutsano mpaka lero.

Pakadali pano pali zoyesayesa zokhala ndi kuwunikira ma radiation omwe amapezeka mdera la zida za nyukiliya. Zotsalira za chojambulira ichi zili mkati mwazitsulo zazikuluzikulu zomwe zidapangidwa kumapeto kwa 2016. Kuwunika, kusungitsa ndi kuyeretsa zikuyembekezeka kupitilirabe mpaka 2065.

Pofuna kusungira anthu onse ogwira ntchito yamagetsi nyukiliya mzaka za m'ma 70, mzinda wa Pripiat unamangidwa. Kuyambira pamenepo, mzindawu wakhala tawuni yamtendere yomwe yasiyidwa ndipo pano ukugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati labotale yophunzirira njira zamagetsi zamagetsi.

Zovuta zakutali za tsoka la nyukiliya

Tsoka la Chernobyl

Nthawi zonse pamalankhulidwa za tsoka la nyukiliya, ndikofunikira kupenda zomwe zingachitike kwakanthawi. Zili ndi vuto posachedwa m'nkhalango ndi nyama zomwe zikuzungulira zomwe zikufufuzidwanso. Pambuyo pa ngoziyi, malo pafupifupi 10 km² adasinthidwa "nkhalango yofiira". Izi ndichifukwa choti mitengo yambiri idasandulika kukhala yofiirira ndipo imamwalira italandira ma radiation ochulukirapo mlengalenga.

Pakadali pano, timapanga madera onse osiyidwa kuti azilamulidwa ndi chete, koma amoyo wathunthu. Mitengo yambiri yabwereranso ndipo yazolowera kuchuluka kwa ma radiation. Zonsezi ndichifukwa chakusowa kwa zochita za anthu mozungulira chomera cha nyukiliya. Kuchuluka kwa mitundu ina monga ma lynx ndi kupita patsogolo kwawonjezeka. Akuyerekeza kuti mu 2015 panali mimbulu yochulukirapo kasanu ndi kawiri kudera lolekerera kuposa nkhokwe zapafupi, chifukwa chakusowa kwa anthu.

Monga mukuwonera, ngakhale tsoka lodziwika bwino la nyukiliya ngati Chernobyl limatiphunzitsa kuti anthu ndiye vuto lenileni lazachilengedwe.


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  1.   William Goytia anati

    Ndi pamapeto omaliza okha pomwe ndimamvetsetsa cholinga cha covid19.