Chilichonse chomwe muyenera kudziwa za biogas

biogas

Pali zowonjezera zamagetsi zowonjezeredwa kupatula zomwe timadziwa kuti mphepo, dzuwa, kutentha kwa nthaka, ma hydraulic, ndi zina zambiri. Lero tilingalira ndikuphunzira za gwero la mphamvu zowonjezeredwa, mwina osati lodziwika bwino ngati ena onse, koma lamphamvu yayikulu. Ndizokhudza biogas.

Biogas ndi mpweya wamphamvu womwe umachokera ku zinyalala zachilengedwe. Kuphatikiza pa zabwino zake zambiri, ndi mtundu wa mphamvu zoyera komanso zowonjezekanso. Kodi mukufuna kudziwa zambiri za biogas?

Makhalidwe a biogas

Biogas ndi mpweya womwe umapangidwa m'malo achilengedwe kapena zida zina. Ndizopangidwa ndi kusintha kwa mitundu ya zinthu zakuthupi. Amakonda kupangidwa m'malo otayira zinyalala pomwe zinthu zonse zomwe zidasungidwa zimawonongeka. Zinthu zakuthupi zikavumbulidwa zimawonekera kuzinthu zakunja, zochita za tizilombo tating'onoting'ono monga mabakiteriya a methanogenic (mabakiteriya omwe amawoneka ngati kulibe mpweya komanso kudyetsa mafuta a methane) ndi zinthu zina zimawononga.

M'malo awa pomwe mpweya kulibe ndipo mabakiteriyawa amadya zinthu zakuthupi, zotayidwa zawo ndi mpweya wa methane ndi CO2. Chifukwa chake, kapangidwe ka biogas ndi chisakanizo chopangidwa ndi 40% ndi 70% methane ndi CO2 yonse. Ilinso ndimagawo ena ang'onoang'ono monga hydrogen (H2), nayitrogeni (N2), mpweya (O2) ndi hydrogen sulfide (H2S), koma sizofunikira.

Momwe biogas imapangidwira

kupanga biogas

Biogas imapangidwa ndi kuwola kwa anaerobic ndipo imathandiza kwambiri pochotsa zinyalala zomwe zitha kuwonongeka, chifukwa zimapanga mafuta amtengo wapatali kwambiri ndipo zimatulutsa zonyansa zomwe zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chokometsera nthaka kapena kompositi generic.

Ndi mpweya uwu mphamvu yamagetsi imatha kupangidwa m'njira zosiyanasiyana. Yoyamba ndikugwiritsa ntchito makina opangira magetsi kusuntha mpweya ndikupanga magetsi. China ndikugwiritsa ntchito gasi kupangira kutentha mu uvuni, masitovu, zowumitsa, zotentha kapena zida zina zoyaka zomwe zimafuna mpweya.

Popeza imapangidwa chifukwa chakuwononga zinthu zakuthupi, imawerengedwa kuti ndi mphamvu yamagetsi yomwe imatha kusintha mafuta. Ndi iyo mutha kupezanso mphamvu zophikira ndi kutentha monga momwe gasi lachilengedwe limagwirira ntchito. Momwemonso, biogas yolumikizidwa ndi jenereta ndikupanga magetsi kudzera mu injini zoyaka zamkati.

Mphamvu zamagetsi

Kutulutsa kwa biogas m'malo otayira zinyalala

Kutulutsa kwa biogas m'malo otayira zinyalala

Chifukwa chake titha kunena kuti biogas ili ndi kuthekera kosintha mafuta ndi chifukwa iyenera kukhala ndi mphamvu yayikulu. Ndi kiyubiki mita ya biogas Itha kupanga mpaka maola 6 akuwala. Kuwala komwe kumapangidwa kumatha kufikira kwa babu 60 watt. Muthanso kuyendetsa firiji ya cubic kwa ola limodzi, chofungatira kwa mphindi 30, ndi mota ya HP kwa maola awiri.

Chifukwa chake, biogas imalingaliridwa mpweya wamphamvu wokhala ndi mphamvu zosaneneka.

Mbiri ya Biogas

kupeza ma biogas omwe amadzipangira okha

Kutchulidwa koyamba komwe kumawoneka ndi mpweyawu kudayamba mchaka cha 1600, pomwe asayansi angapo adazindikira kuti mpweyawu ndi womwe umachokera pakuwonongeka kwa zinthu zachilengedwe.

Kwa zaka zambiri, mu 1890, idamangidwa biodigester yoyamba pomwe biogas amapangidwa ndipo zinali ku India. Mu 1896 nyali za mumsewu ku Exeter, England, zidakakamizidwa ndi gasi lomwe limasonkhanitsidwa kuchokera kumagetsi opangira zonyansa zam'madzi zonyamula mzindawo.

Nkhondo ziwiri zapadziko lonse zitatha, mafakitale omwe amatchedwa kuti biogas adayamba kufalikira ku Europe. M'mafakitalewa biogas adapangidwa kuti azigwiritsidwa ntchito pamagalimoto apanthawiyo. Matanki a Imhoff amadziwika kuti ndi omwe amatha kusamalira madzi amzimbudzi ndikupangira zinthu zachilengedwe kuti apange biogas. Mpweya womwe umapangidwa udagwiritsidwa ntchito poyendetsa mbewuzo, zamagalimoto amatauni ndipo m'mizinda ina idalowetsedwa mumagetsi.

Kufalikira kwa Biogas adasokonezedwa ndi kupezeka kosavuta ndi magwiridwe antchito amafuta ndipo, pambuyo pamavuto amagetsi m'ma 70s, kafukufuku wama biogas ndi chitukuko zidayambitsidwanso m'maiko onse apadziko lapansi, poganizira kwambiri mayiko aku Latin America.

Pazaka 20 zapitazi, kukula kwa biogas kwakhala kukuyenda bwino kwambiri chifukwa cha zomwe zatulukira zokhudzana ndi tizilombo tating'onoting'ono tomwe timagwira mmenemo ndipo chifukwa chakuwunika kwamachitidwe a tizilombo tomwe timalowerera munthawi ya anaerobic.

Kodi biodigesters ndi chiyani?

zomera za biogas

Ma biodigesters ndi mitundu yazitsulo zotsekedwa, zotsekemera komanso zopanda madzi pomwe zinthu zoyikika zimayikidwa ndikuloledwa kuwola ndikupanga biogas. Chotsitsa biodigester ayenera kutsekedwa ndi hermetic kotero kuti mabakiteriya a anaerobic atha kuchita ndikuwononga zinthu zachilengedwe. Mabakiteriya a Methanogenic amangokula m'malo omwe mulibe mpweya.

Makina amenewa ali ndi kukula kwake ya ma cubic metres opitilira 1.000 mphamvu ndipo amagwira ntchito m'malo otentha a mesophilic (pakati pa 20 ndi 40 madigiri) ndi thermophilic (opitilira 40 madigiri).

Biogas imachotsedwanso m'malo otayira zinyalala pomwe, popeza zigawo zachilengedwe zimadzazidwa ndikutseka, malo opanda oxygen amapangidwa momwe mabakiteriya a methanogenic amawononga zinthu zakuthupi ndikupanga ma biogas omwe amatengedwa kudzera m'machubu.

Ubwino womwe opangira ma biodigesters ali nawo pazinthu zina zopangira magetsi ndikuti ali ndi vuto lochepa lachilengedwe ndipo safuna antchito oyenerera. Kuphatikiza apo, monga chotulukapo cha kuwonongeka kwa zinthu zakuthupi, feteleza wambiri atha kupezeka omwe amagwiritsidwanso ntchito kutulutsa mbewu muulimi.

Germany, China ndi India ndi ena mwa mayiko omwe akuchita upainiya pakubweretsa ukadaulo wamtunduwu. Ku Latin America, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay ndi Bolivia awonetsa kupita patsogolo kwakukulu pakuphatikizidwa kwawo.

Ntchito ya Biogas lero

kugwiritsa ntchito biogas masiku ano

Ku Latin America, biogas imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochizira ku Argentina. Stillage ndi malo otsala omwe amapangidwa ndi mafakitale a nzimbe ndipo pansi pamikhalidwe ya anaerobic imawonongeka ndikupanga biogas.

Chiwerengero cha opanga biodigester padziko lapansi sichinafikebe. Ku Ulaya kuli mitundu 130 yokha yophera zinyama. Komabe, izi zimagwira ntchito ngati gawo la mphamvu zina zowonjezeredwa monga dzuwa ndi mphepo, ndiye kuti, monga ukadaulo umapezeka ndikupanga, mitengo yazopanga imachepa ndikukhala wodalirika pakupanga biogas kumakula. Chifukwa chake, akukhulupirira kuti adzakhala ndi gawo lotukuka mtsogolo.

Kugwiritsa ntchito biogas kumadera akumidzi kunali kofunikira kwambiri. Zakale zakhala zikugwira ntchito yopanga mphamvu ndi feteleza wamafuta kwa alimi omwe amakhala m'malo akutali kwambiri omwe alibe ndalama zambiri komanso zovuta kuzipeza zamagetsi wamba.

Kwa madera akumidzi, ukadaulo wapangidwa womwe umafuna kukwaniritsa ma digester ndi mtengo wotsika komanso osavuta kugwiritsa ntchito. Mphamvu zomwe zimafunikira kupangidwa sizochulukirapo monga m'matawuni, chifukwa chake sizikhala zofunikira kuti magwiridwe antchito ake akhale okwera.

Dera lina lomwe biogas imagwiritsidwa ntchito masiku ano Ili m'gawo lazamalonda ndi zaulimi. Cholinga cha biogas m'magawo awa ndikupereka mphamvu ndikuthana ndi mavuto akulu omwe amadza chifukwa cha kuipitsa. Ndi ma biodigesters kuipitsidwa kwa zinthu zakuthupi kumatha kuwongoleredwa bwino. Ma biodigesters awa ali ndi magwiridwe antchito ambiri komanso momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito, kuphatikiza pakukhala ndi mtengo wokwera kwambiri, amakhala ndi makina ovuta kukonza komanso magwiridwe antchito.

Kupita patsogolo kwaposachedwa kwazida zopangira zida zothandizirako kwathandizira kugwiritsa ntchito bwino mpweya womwe umapangidwa ndipo kupita patsogolo kwamachitidwe a nayonso mphamvu kumathandizira kuti pakhale chitukuko mderali.

Mtundu wamakonowu ukaphatikizidwa, ndizofunikira kuti zinthu zomwe zatulutsidwa mu netiweki zamizinda ali yekha organic. Kupanda kutero, kugwira ntchito kwa ma digesters kungakhudzidwe ndikupanga biogas kumakhala kovuta. Izi zachitika m'maiko angapo ndipo ma biodigester asiyidwa.

Chizoloŵezi chofala kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi ndi cha zinyalala. Cholinga cha mchitidwewu ndi Kuthetsa zinyalala zambiri zomwe zimapangidwa m'mizinda yayikulu ndipo ndi izi, ndi maluso amakono, ndikotheka kutulutsa ndikuyeretsa mpweya wa methane womwe umapangidwa ndikuti zaka makumi angapo zapitazo izi zidabweretsa mavuto akulu. Mavuto monga kufa kwa masamba omwe anali m'malo oyandikira zipatala, kununkhira koyipa komanso zotheka kuphulika.

Kupititsa patsogolo njira zopangira ma biogas kwathandiza kuti mizinda yambiri padziko lapansi, monga Santiago de Chile, igwiritse ntchito ma biogas monga gwero lamagetsi pamaukonde achilengedwe ogawira gasi m'mizinda.

Biogas amayembekeza kwambiri mtsogolo, chifukwa ndi mphamvu yowonjezeredwa, yoyera yomwe imathandiza kuthana ndi mavuto a kuipitsa komanso kuwononga mankhwala. Kuphatikiza apo, imathandizira pantchito zaulimi, ndikupereka ngati fetereza wopangidwa ndi zinthu zina zomwe zimathandizira m'moyo wazinthu zonse komanso kubzala kwa mbeu.


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  1.   Jorge Busi anati

    Boasi,
    Ndikufufuza kuti ndipange biodigester.
    Ndikugwira ntchito pafamu ya nkhumba yomwe ili ndi mitu 8000, ndikufuna kampani yomwe ili ndi luso pakupanga biodigesters.
    Kumeneku kuli m’chigawo cha kum’mwera.
    Modzipereka
    G.Busi