Biodiesel

biofuel

Pofuna kupewa kugwiritsa ntchito mafuta omwe akuchulukitsa kutentha kwanyengo chifukwa cha mpweya wowonjezera kutentha, kafukufuku wowonjezereka ndikukula kwa mitundu ina yamagetsi osagwiritsidwa ntchito akuchitika, monga mphamvu zowonjezeredwa monga timawadziwira. Pali mitundu yambiri yamagetsi yowonjezeredwa: dzuwa, mphepo, kutentha kwa madzi, magetsi, biomass, ndi zina zambiri. Mphamvu zochokera ku biofuels, monga biodiesel, ndi gwero lamagetsi lamagetsi lomwe lingapitsidwenso kuchokera kuzinthu zomwe zingalowe m'malo mwa mafuta.

Biodiesel kapena fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) atha kupangidwa kuchokera ku mafuta ndi mafuta osiyanasiyana kudzera munjira yotsimikizira, kuphatikiza obedwa ndi mpendadzuwa, soya ndi walnuts mbali imodzi, ndi mafuta ndi mafuta omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi ena. Njirayi imayamba ndikutulutsa mafuta kuzomera zamafuta. Kodi mukufuna kudziwa zambiri za biodiesel? Apa tikufotokozera zonse.

Kufunika kwa biofuels

ubwino wa biodiesel

Chiyambireni kusintha kwamakampani, anthu akhala akuthandiza ndikulimbikitsa sayansi ndi ukadaulo ndi mphamvu zochokera ku mafuta. Ndi mafuta, malasha ndi gasi wachilengedwe. Ngakhale kuthekera ndi mphamvu zamagetsi izi ndizokwera, mafuta amenewa ndi ochepa ndipo akutha mofulumira. Kuphatikiza apo, kugwiritsa ntchito mafutawa kumatulutsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha mumlengalenga, motero kusunga kutentha kwakukulu mlengalenga ndikupangitsa kutentha kwanyengo ndi kusintha kwa nyengo.

Pazifukwa izi, anthu akuyesera kupeza magwero ena amagetsi othandizira kuti athetse mavuto omwe amabwera chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito mafuta. Pankhaniyi, biofuels amawerengedwa kuti ndiwopanganso mphamvu chifukwa zimapangidwa kuchokera ku zotsalira zazomera. Bzalani biomass, mosiyana ndi mafuta, sizitenga zaka mamiliyoni ambiri kuti ziberekem'malo mwake, zimatero pamlingo woyenera kuwongoleredwa ndi anthu. Biofuels amapangidwanso kuchokera ku mbewu zomwe zitha kubzalidwa. Pakati pa biofuels tili Mowa ndi biodiesel.

Kodi biodiesel ndi chiyani?

biodiesel

Biodiesel ndi mtundu wina wa biofuel, Wopangidwa kuchokera ku mafuta atsopano omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kale komanso mafuta ena anyama. Popeza anthu ambiri amayamba kupanga mafuta awo kunyumba kuti asagwiritse ntchito mafuta ochulukirapo, biodiesel yatchuka kwambiri ndipo yafalikira padziko lonse lapansi.

Biodiesel itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'galimoto zambiri zoyendera dizilo popanda injini zambiri. Komabe, injini zakale za dizilo zingafune kukonzanso zina pokonza biodiesel. M'zaka zaposachedwa, kampani yaying'ono ya biodiesel yakhala ikupezeka ku United States ndipo malo ena othandizira kale apereka biodiesel.

Momwe biodiesel amapangira

Njirayi imayamba ndikutulutsa mafuta kuchokera ku masamba oleaginous. Pambuyo pokonza, mafutawo amasinthidwa kukhala FAME kapena biodiesel powonjezera methanol ndi chothandizira. Chifukwa cha mawonekedwe ake ofanana kwambiri ndi mafuta a dizilo, biodiesel itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito mu injini zamagetsi zamagetsi. Kuphatikiza apo, kuphatikiza pazabwino zake ngati mafuta amadzi, itha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito popanga kutentha ndi mphamvu. Popeza mafutawa mulibe ma hydrocarboni onunkhira amtundu wa polycyclic amalola kuti isungidwe ndikunyamulidwa popanda zoopsa zilizonse. Chifukwa zimachokera ku mafuta azamasamba ndi mafuta azinyama, ndimphamvu zowonjezekanso komanso zowononga zachilengedwe.

Zamgululi itha kusakanizidwa ndi dizilo m'malo osiyanasiyana popanda kusintha kwakukulu kwa injini. Komabe, sikulimbikitsidwa kugwiritsa ntchito dizilo wosakaniza pang'ono osasintha mawonekedwe a injini, popeza magwiridwe ake sangatsimikizidwe kutengera kafukufuku yemwe wachitika pakadali pano.

Mbali inayi, biodiesel ili ndi mafuta abwino kwambiri opangira mafutaChifukwa chake, pang'ono pokha, imatha kusintha magwiridwe antchito a mafuta a dizilo, kuposa phindu la sulfure. Ndizofanana ndi china chomwe chimatalikitsa moyo wa alumali. Njira yonse yopezera biodiesel ndi bwino onse pochulukitsa komanso mphamvu.

kuipa

makhalidwe a biodiesel

Poyerekeza ndi magwiridwe antchito achilengedwe a mafuta, chimodzi mwazovuta zakugwiritsa ntchito biodiesel ndi mphamvu yochepetsedwa. Zomwe zili mu biodiesel ndizochepa. Mwambiri, lita imodzi ya dizilo ili ndi mphamvu 9.300 kcal, pamene biodiesel yofanana imakhala ndi 8.600 kcal yokha yamphamvu. Mwanjira imeneyi, biodiesel yambiri imafunika kuti ipeze mphamvu zofanana ndi dizilo.

Mbali inayi, chofunikira kudziwa ndi nambala ya cetane, yomwe iyenera kukhala yoposa 40 kuti igwire bwino ntchito. Mafuta okwera kwambiri amaloleza injini kuti iyambe mwachangu komanso mosavuta ndikutentha pamafunde otsika popanda zolakwika. Biodiesel ili ndi nambala ya cetane yofanana ndi dizilo, chifukwa chake itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito mu injini yomweyo popanda kuyambitsa zovuta zina.

Vuto lina lofunika kulinena polankhula za mafuta ndi momwe zimakhudzira chilengedwe komanso zovuta zina zomwe zitha kupatsira anthu. Pamenepa, zitha kunenedwa kuti kugwiritsa ntchito biodiesel ngati choloweza mmalo kapena chophatikizira cha dizilo-biodiesel osakaniza Ikhoza kuchepetsa mpweya wowononga womwe umatulutsidwa mumlengalenga, monga nayitrogeni oxides (NOx) kapena carbon dioxide (CO2). Tebulo lotsatirali likuwonetsa kuchepa kwa dizilo wangwiro.

Ubwino waukulu

  • Poyerekeza ndi dizilo yoyambira zakale, Biodiesel ili ndi zabwino zachilengedwe chifukwa imachepetsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha.
  • Poyerekeza ndi dizilo ya mafuta, maukonde a carbon monoxide amachepetsedwa ndi 78%.
  • Mafuta a biodiesel akawonjezeredwa pamafuta amtundu wa dizilo, ngakhale osakanikirana ndi 1%, mafuta a dizilo amatha kukhala bwino kwambiri.
  • Ndi mafuta osavulaza chilengedwe.
  • Zimapangidwa kuchokera kuzinthu zopangira zowonjezekanso.
  • Lili pafupifupi sulufule. Pewani mpweya wa SOx (mvula yamchere kapena kutentha).
  • Sinthani kuyaka ndikuchepetsa kwambiri utsi ndi mpweya (mpaka 55%, kuchotsa utsi wakuda ndi zonunkhira zosasangalatsa).
  • Imapanga mpweya wocheperako pang'ono panthawi yoyaka kuposa mpweya woipa womwe umatengera kukula kwa mbewu (kutsekeka kwa kaboni dayokisaidi).

Wotaya izi amatha kuphunzira zambiri za mtundu uwu wa biofuel mawonekedwe ake.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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