Ndani adapeza magetsi?

Mphezi ndi magetsi

Ndichinthu chomwe anthu ambiri akhala akudzifunsa pazaka zapitazi. Komabe, funsoli silinapangidwe bwino, chifukwa magetsi amapezeka mwachilengedwe, kotero sanapangidwe ndi aliyense. Zomwe zidatengedwera pamlingo wina kuti zizigwiritsidwa ntchito ndikuwunikira usiku wamdima. Poyerekeza ndi amene anapeza magetsi, pali malingaliro olakwika ambiri omwe amafalitsidwa ndi ma network komanso ndi pakamwa.

Munkhaniyi tifotokozera kukayika konse ndikutsutsa zikhulupiriro zina zolakwika zomwe zilipo masiku ano. Kodi mukufuna kudziwa yemwe anapezadi magetsi? Pitilizani kuwerenga chifukwa timakufotokozerani zonse mwatsatanetsatane.

Mbiri yamagetsi

Kuyesera kwa Kite

Ena amaganiza kuti wapeza magetsi ndi Benjamin Franklin. Komabe, sizili choncho kwenikweni. Chowonadi ndichosiyana. Ndizowona kuti a Franklin anali akuyesera kuti apeze magetsi, koma adangothandiza kulumikiza magetsi kwa anthu ndi mphezi zopangidwa m'chilengedwe. Kugwirizana kumeneku kunathandiza kwambiri kukulitsa magetsi, koma si iye amene anawapeza.

Mbiri yamagetsi ndiyovuta kwambiri, chifukwa ndichinthu chanzeru kudziwa china chake chomwe chingakuphe mukangomva kumene ndipo mwachilengedwe chakhala chikuwopsedwa kwazaka zambiri. Mbiri imabwerera zaka zoposa zikwi ziwiri.

Agiriki akale ku 600 BC adazindikira kuti ngati anapaka khungu la nyama ndi utomoni wa mitengo izo zinayambitsa mtundu wa kukopa pakati pawo. Izi ndizomwe zimadziwika kuti static magetsi. Chifukwa chake, kuyambira pano mtundu wamagetsi unali kudziwika. Mwina si magetsi omwe amapereka kuwala kumizinda, koma ndizowona kuti kafukufuku ndi chidwi chidayamba komweko.

Ofufuza ena ndi akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale apeza zombo zokutidwa ndi mkuwa zomwe zimatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mabatire owunikira malo akale achiroma. Chifukwa chake zonsezi zibwerera kale kwambiri kuposa momwe mungaganizire.

Kale m'zaka za zana la khumi ndi chisanu ndi chiwiri ndipamene zidatulukiridwa zambiri zamagetsi monga tikudziwira lero. Chinthu choyamba chimene anatulukira anali jenereta electrostatic, popeza mphamvu zamtunduwu zimadziwika kwambiri.

Ofufuza angapo ofunikira

kupangidwa kwa babu yoyatsa

Chifukwa chodziwa zamagetsi zamagetsi, zida zina zitha kugawidwa ngati zomwe timadziwa lero: insulators ndi ochititsa. Ichi chinali china chosiyana ndi chodabwitsa pa nthawi yomwe anali. Chifukwa cha izi, zinali zotheka kudziwa momwe tingawunikire bwino zamagetsi kuchokera kuzinthu zopangira komanso kuti pambuyo pake timange nyumba zotetezeka ndi zotchingira.

Mu 1600, mawu oti 'magetsi"mwa dokotala wachingelezi William Gilbert ndipo limanena za mphamvu zomwe zimachitika ndi zinthu zina zikakanikizana.

Pambuyo pake, wasayansi waku England wotchedwa Thomas Browne Adalemba mabuku angapo momwe amafotokozera kafukufuku wonse yemwe adachita pogwiritsa ntchito magetsi potengera Gilbert.

Apa ndipomwe timafika pagawo lomwe limadziwika kwambiri pagulu. Ndi za Benjamin Franklin. Mu 1752 wasayansiyu anali kuyesa kaiti, kiyi ndi kukhalapo kwa bingu. Ndi kuyesayesa kwasayansi komwe aliyense amaganiza kuti ndikupeza magetsi, sizinali zina koma kuwonetsa kuti mphezi ndi zothetheka zazing'ono zomwe zimadumphira mu kite zinali zofanana.

Sizinapite patapita nthawi Kuphulika kwa Alessandro anapeza zinthu zina zomwe zingayambitse kupanga magetsi. Chifukwa cha kuyesera uku ndi chemistry, khungu la voltaic lidapangidwa mu 1800. Selo ili limatha kupanga magetsi osasintha. Chifukwa chake, titha kunena kuti Volta anali wofufuza woyamba wokhoza kupanga kuyendetsa kosalekeza kwamagetsi ndi mphamvu. Anagwiritsanso ntchito chidziwitso chomwe adapeza kuchokera kwa ofufuza ena pazolumikizira zabwino komanso zoyipa. Chifukwa chake adapanga ma voliyumu kudutsa iwo.

Magetsi amakono

Dynamo yopangidwa ndi Nikola Tesla

Tikuyandikira kupezeka kwa magetsi monga tikudziwira lero. Mu 1831 magetsi adakhala othandiza paukadaulo chifukwa chakupezeka kwa Michael faraday. Wasayansi uyu adatha kupanga dynamo yamagetsi. Ndiopanga magetsi ndipo idathandizira kuthana ndi mavuto ndikupanga magetsi mosalekeza.

Ndikupezeka kwa Faraday, A Thomas Edison anali ndi mbale ndikupanga babu yoyamba yoyaka mu 1878. Apa ndipamene babu yoyatsira monga tikudziwira lero idabadwira. Mababu anali atapangidwa kale ndi ena, koma ma incandescent anali oyamba omwe anali ndi ntchito yothandiza powunikira kwa maola ambiri.

Kumbali ina, wasayansi Joseph Swan nayenso anatulukira ina Babu losandutsa magetsi ndipo, palimodzi, adapanga kampani pomwe amapangira nyali yoyamba yoyatsa. Nyali izi zimagwiritsa ntchito njira zaposachedwa zowunikira nyali zoyambira zamagetsi m'misewu ya New York mu Seputembala 1882.

Ndani Anapezadi Magetsi?

Kuwala m'mizinda

Kale kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m'ma 1900 panali pamene injiniya Nikola Tesla adadzipangira yekha kuti asandutse mphamvu kukhala chinthu chamalonda. Anagwira ntchito limodzi ndi Edison ndipo pambuyo pake adapanga mapulogalamu osinthira magetsi. Iye amadziwika bwino chifukwa cha ntchito yake yabwino kwambiri posintha zina zomwe zidapangitsa kuti pakhale njira yogawa ma polyphase monga omwe amadziwika masiku ano.

Pambuyo pake, George Westinghouse adagula mota wokhala ndi setifiketi ya Tesla kuti athe kupanga ndikugulitsa, kupanga kusinthasintha kwamakono pamlingo waukulu. Zopangidwazi zidazindikiritsa anthu kuti magetsi azamalonda akuyenera kutengera kusintha kwamakono osati molunjika.

Monga mukuwonera, zikafika kuti ndani adapeza magetsi, sizinganenedwe kapena kutchulidwa kuti anali munthu m'modzi. Monga adakwanitsira kuzindikira, ndi ntchito ya zaka masauzande ambiri komanso kutenga nawo mbali kwa ofufuza ambiri ochokera kumadera osiyanasiyana ndi magawo azidziwitso. Magetsi ndichinthu chomwe chakulitsa kwambiri moyo wa anthu ndipo tiyenera kuthokoza anthu onsewa kuti achite izi.


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