Zotsatira za Photovoltaic

Zotsatira za Photovoltaic

Imodzi mwa njira zofunika kwambiri padziko lapansi la mphamvu ya dzuwa ndi Photovoltaic zotsatira. Ndizowonetseratu zithunzi zomwe magetsi amapangidwa omwe amayenda kuchokera ku chidutswa china kupita ku china chopangidwa ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana. Zipangizozi zimawonekera padzuwa kapena poizoniyu yamagetsi yamagetsi. Izi ndizofunikira pakupanga mphamvu zamagetsi kuchokera m'maselo a photovoltaic amagetsi a dzuwa.

Ngati mukufuna kudziwa momwe mapanelo amagetsi amagwirira ntchito komanso zotsatira zake ndi chiyani, iyi ndiye positi yanu

Zotsatira za photovoltaic ndi chiyani?

Momwe zimachitikira photovoltaic zimachitika

Tikamagwiritsa ntchito makina azungulira dzuwa kuti tipeze mphamvu zamagetsi, chomwe timagwiritsa ntchito ndi mphamvu zomwe ma radiation a dzuwa amayenera kuisintha kukhala mphamvu yamagetsi yanyumba yathu. Maselo a Photovoltaic ndi zida zama semiconductor zopangidwa makamaka ndi silicon. Maselo a photovoltaic amenewa amakhala ndi zosafunika kuchokera kuzinthu zina zamagulu. Komabe, silicon imayesedwa kuti ikhale yovuta kwambiri momwe ingathere.

Maselo a Photovoltaic amatha kupanga magetsi kuchokera pakali pano pogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yochokera ku ma radiation a dzuwa. Vuto lamtunduwu ndikuti siligwiritsidwa ntchito panyumba. Ndikofunika kusintha mphamvu mosalekeza kukhala mphamvu zosinthira kuti muzigwiritsa ntchito. Izi zimafuna fayilo ya mphamvu inverter.

Zomwe mphamvu ya photovoltaic imachita ndikupanga mphamvu yamagetsi yochokera ku ma radiation a dzuwa. Kuchulukaku kumabwera ngati kutentha ndipo chifukwa cha izi amasinthidwa kukhala magetsi. Kuti izi zitheke, ma cell a photovoltaic amayenera kuikidwa motsatana limodzi ndi ma solar. Izi zachitika kuti mutha pezani magetsi okwanira omwe amalola kuti apange magetsi.

Mwachidziwikire, si radiation yonse ya dzuwa yomwe imachokera mumlengalenga yomwe imasinthidwa kukhala mphamvu yamagetsi. Gawo lina limatayika powunikiridwa ndipo lina mwa kufalitsa. Ndiye kuti, gawo limodzi limabwezeretsedwera mumlengalenga ndipo gawo lina limadutsika ndi selo. Kuchuluka kwa radiation yomwe imatha kulumikizana ndi ma photovoltaic cell ndi yomwe imapangitsa ma elekitironi kudumpha kuchokera pagawo limodzi kupita kwina. Ndipamene mphamvu yamagetsi imapangidwa yomwe mphamvu yake imagwirizana ndi kuchuluka kwa radiation yomwe pamapeto pake imagunda ma cell.

Makhalidwe a zotsatira za photovoltaic

Mphamvu inverter

Ichi ndiye chinsinsi chomwe mapanelo amagetsi azisunga. Zachidziwikire kuti mudayimapo kuti muganize momwe angapangire magetsi kuchokera kudzuwa. Ndizokhudza kutenga nawo mbali kwa zinthu zambiri zopangidwa ndi zinthu zoyendetsa. Mmodzi wa iwo ndi pakachitsulo. Ndi chinthu chomwe chikuwonetsa machitidwe ena mothandizidwa ndi magetsi.

Zomwe zimachitika ndi zida zama semiconductor izi zimadalira kwathunthu ngati gwero lamagetsi limatha kuwasangalatsa kapena ayi. Ndiye kuti, ma elekitironi amapita kudera lina lamphamvu. Poterepa, tili ndi gwero lomwe limatha kusangalatsa ma electron, omwe ndi ma radiation a dzuwa.

Mphindi a chithunzi Imagundana ndi ma elekitironi kuchokera mu njira yomaliza ya atomu ya silicon, zotsatira za photovoltaic zimayamba. Kugundaku kumapangitsa kuti ma elekitironi alandire mphamvu kuchokera ku photon ndipo amatha kukhala osangalala. Ngati mphamvu yomwe ma elekitironi amapeza kuchokera ku photon ndiyokwera kuposa mphamvu yokongola ya phata la atomu ya silicon, tidzakhala tikuyang'anizana ndi kutuluka kwa elekitironi mu njira yake.

Zonsezi zimapangitsa ma atomu kukhala aulere ndipo amatha kuyenda pazinthu zonse zama semiconductor. Izi zikachitika, silicon yomwe imagwira ntchito yopititsira patsogolo imagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zonse komwe ingakhale yothandiza. Ma electron omwe amamasulidwa pamilandu amapita kumaatomu ena omwe kuli malo aulere. Kuyenda kwa ma elekitironi ndi komwe kumatchedwa kuti charger.

Momwe amapangidwira

Zigawo zamagetsi a dzuwa

Kutulutsa mafunde kumakwaniritsidwa pogwiritsa ntchito zida zopangira zinthu ndikupangitsa kuti izi zichitike mosalekeza kuti pakhale malo amagetsi omwe amakhala ndi polarity nthawi zonse. Ndi mtundu wamagetsi amtunduwu womwe umayamba kukankhira ma elekitironi mbali zonse kuti azungulira magetsi.

Ngati mphamvu ya ma elekitironi yodyetsedwa ndi photon iposa zokopa za atomu ya silicon, idzakhala yaulere. Kuti izi zichitike, mphamvu yomwe mphamvu ya photon iyenera kukhala nayo pa electron ndi pafupifupi 1,2 eV.

Mtundu uliwonse wa semiconductor chuma uli ndi mphamvu yocheperako kuti utulutse ma elekitironi kuchokera kumaatomu ake. Pali ma photon omwe amakhala ndi kutalika kwakanthawi kochepa ndipo amachokera ku radiation ya ultraviolet. Monga tikudziwa, ma photon amenewa ali ndi mphamvu zambiri. Kumbali inayi, timapeza omwe kutalika kwake ndi kotalika, motero amakhala ndi mphamvu zochepa. Zithunzi izi zili mgawo la infuraredi lamagetsi yamagetsi.

Mphamvu zochepa zomwe semiconductor aliyense amatulutsa kuti atulutse ma elekitironi zimadalira pafupipafupi. Bungweli limawayanjanitsa ndi omwe amabwera mu radiation ya ultraviolet mpaka mitundu yowonekera. Pansi pake, sangathe kutulutsa ma elekitironi, chifukwa chake sipadzakhala magetsi.

Vuto la Photon

Gulu la dzuwa photovoltaic zotsatira

Kudutsa munkhaniyi kuti mulekanitse ma elekitironi kumakhala kovuta kwambiri. Si zithunzi zonse zomwe zimachita mwachindunji. Izi ndichifukwa choti kuti athe kudutsa pazinthuzo ayenera kutaya mphamvu. Ngati omwe ali m'dera lalitali kwambiri pamagetsi amagetsi atha kukhala ndi mphamvu zochepa, amatha kuzitaya akakumana ndi zinthuzo. Mphamvu zikatayika, ma photon ena amawombana pang'ono ndi ma elekitironi ndipo sangathe kuwachotsa. Kuwonongeka uku sikungapeweke ndipo ndizomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zosatheka kukhala ndi 100% yogwiritsa ntchito dzuwa.

Mphamvu zina zotayika zimachitika ma photon akamadutsa pazinthu zonse komanso sagundana ndi electron iliyonse kuti ayichotse. Ili ndi vuto losapeweka.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti nkhaniyi yafotokoza bwino zotsatira za photovoltaic.


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