Mphamvu yamafunde kapena mphamvu yamafunde

Mphamvu zamadzi am'nyanja

Mphamvu ya mafunde kapena odziwika bwino asayansi yamphamvu yamafunde ndiyomwe imadza chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito mafundendiye kuti, kusiyana kwa kutalika kwa nyanja molingana ndi momwe dziko lapansi ndi Mwezi zilili komanso zomwe zimachokera pakukopa kwamphamvu kwa Dzuwa ndi Dzuwa pamadzi am'nyanja.

Ndi mawu awa titha kunena kuti kuyenda kwa madzi, zopangidwa ndi kukopa kwa Mwezi kawiri patsiku, ndizotheka kuzigwiritsa ntchito ngati gwero lamagetsi.

Kuyenda uku tichipeza kukwera kwa nyanja, yomwe m'malo ena itha kukhala yayikulu.

Mwezi ukutaya mphamvu, pang'onopang'ono, ndipo ukupanga mphamvu zam'madzi, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ukhale mosiyana kwambiri ndi dziko lapansi.

Kutha kwapakati pamphamvu kwamphamvu ngati mafunde kuli pafupifupi 3,1012 Watts, kapena kuwirikiza pafupifupi 100.000 poyerekeza ndi kuunika kwa dzuwa komwe kunalandira padziko lapansi.

Mafunde samangokhudza nyanja zokha, ndikupanga mafunde am'nyanja, koma nawonso nawonso zimakhudza zamoyo, Kupanga zochitika zovuta kwachilengedwe zomwe zimapanga gawo lazachilengedwe.

Mafunde opangidwa ndi Mwezi m'nyanja ndi ochepera mita imodzi kutalika, koma m'malo omwe kusintha kwa nthaka kumakulitsa mphamvu ya mafunde, kusintha kwamphamvu kwambiri kumatha kuchitika.

Izi zimachitika m'malo ochepa, omwe ali pashelefu ya kontinenti ndipo ndi madera omwe anthu angagwiritse ntchito kuti apeze mphamvu kudzera pamagetsi.

Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yamafunde

Mosiyana ndi zomwe munthu angaganize za mphamvu yamphamvu, yagwiritsidwa ntchito kalekale, ku Egypt wakale idagwiritsidwa ntchito ndipo ku Europe idayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'zaka za zana la XNUMX.

Mu 1580, magudumu anayi osinthika amadzimadzi adayikika pansi pamiyala ya London Bridge kuti ipope madzi..

Mmodzi mwa omaliza adasiya kugwira ntchito ku Devon, UK, mu 1956.

Komabe, kuyambira 1945 sipakhala chidwi chochepa pamagetsi ang'onoang'ono.

Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yamafunde

Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zamadzimadzi m'njira yosavuta ndikosavuta ofanana ndi mphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi.

Ngakhale pali njira zosiyanasiyana, Chosavuta kwambiri chimakhala ndi damu, lokhala ndi zipata ndi ma hydraulic turbines, omwe amakhala otseka bwato  (pakamwa, munyanja, yamtsinje waukulu komanso wakuya, ndikusinthana ndi madzi amchere awa ndi madzi abwino, chifukwa cha mafunde. Pakamwa pa bwaloli amapangidwa ndi mkono umodzi wamtundu umodzi wopanga fanizo lokulirapo), kumene mafunde ali ndi kutalika kwake.

Kusanthula ntchito ya dongosololi kumawoneka pazithunzi ziwiri zotsatirazi.

Chiwembu cha mafunde ndi damu

Ntchitoyi ndi yophweka ndipo ili ndi:

  • Mafunde akakwera, akuti mafunde apamwamba (malo okwera kwambiri kapena kutalika kwakutali kukufikiridwa ndi mafunde), panthawiyi zipata zatsegulidwa ndipo madzi ayamba kupanga mphepo omwe amafika padoko.
  • Pamene mafunde apamwamba akudutsa ndipo mtengo wokwanira wamadzi wamanga, zipata zimatsekedwa kuteteza madzi kuti asabwerere kunyanja.
  • Pomaliza, pomwe mafunde otsika (malo otsika kwambiri kapena kutalika kocheperako kofikiridwa ndi mafunde), madzi amatulutsidwa kudzera pamagetsi.

Njira yonse yolowera m'madzi mu chombocho komanso potuluka, ma turbines amayendetsa magudumu omwe amapanga mphamvu zamagetsi.

Turbines omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ayenera kusinthidwa kotero kuti azigwira ntchito moyenera ponse pamene madzi alowa mchitsime kapena polowera komanso potuluka.

Kufalitsa mafunde padziko lapansi

Monga ndanenera poyamba mafunde akukulitsidwa ndikusintha kwa nyanja mmadera ena, momwe zingagwiritsire ntchito mafunde ngati gwero la mphamvu, zomwe ndizomwe zimatisangalatsa.

Malo otchuka kwambiri ochitira izi ndi:

  • Ku Europe, pagombe la La Ranee ku France, ku Kislaya Guba ku Russia, m'mphepete mwa nyanja ku Severn ku United Kingdom. Masamba onsewa ali ndi mafunde okwera kwambiri, ndikukwera tsiku ndi tsiku kwa 11 mpaka 16 mita.
  • Tikapita ku South America timawona kuti pali mafunde opitilira 4 mita m'mphepete mwa nyanja za Chile komanso dera lakumwera kwa Argentina. Mafundewa amafikira mamita 14 ku Puerto Gallegos (Argentina). Palinso malo oyenera pafupi ndi Belern ndi Sao Luiz, Brazil.
  • Ku North America, ku Baja California, ku Mexico, komwe kuli mafunde mpaka 10 mita, akuti ndi dera lomwe lingagwiritsidwe ntchito mphamvu yamafunde. Komanso, ku Canada, ku Bay of Fundy, kuli mafunde opitilira 11 mita nawonso.
  • Ku Asia, mafunde okwera kwambiri adalembedwa mu Nyanja ya Arabia, Bay of Bengal, Nyanja yaku South China, m'mphepete mwa nyanja ya Korea ndi Nyanja ya Okhotsk.
  • Komabe ku Rangoon, Burma, mafunde amafikira kutalika kwa 5,8 mita. Ku Amoy (Szeming, China), mafunde a 4,72 mita amapezeka. Kutalika kwa mafunde ku Jinsen, Korea, kumapitilira mamita 8,77 ndipo ku Bombay, India, mafundewo amafikira mamita 3,65.
  • Ku Australia, mafundewo ndi 5,18 mita ku Port Hedland ndi 5,12 mita ku Port Darwin.
  • Pomaliza, ku Africa kulibe malo abwino, mwina makina amagetsi ochepa akhoza kumangidwa kumwera kwa Dakar, ku Madagascar komanso kuzilumba za Comoro.

Padziko lonse, pali malo pafupifupi 100 oyenera kumanga ntchito lalikulu, ngakhale kuli ena ambiri komwe ntchito zing'onozing'ono zimamangidwa.

Zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito, popanga magetsi, mafunde pansi pamamita 3, ngakhale phindu lake lingakhale locheperako.

Komabe, kukhazikitsidwa kwa malo opangira magetsi (kukhala othandiza) ndizotheka m'malo omwe muli kusiyana kosachepera 5 mita pakati pamafunde okwera ndi otsika.

Pali mfundo zochepa padziko lapansi pomwe izi zimachitika. Izi ndi izi:

mafunde akulu

Zonsezi, zitha kukhazikitsidwa pakupanga magetsi, m'malo opezeka anthu ambiri padziko lapansi 13.000 MW, chiwerengero chofanana ndi 1% yamphamvu zamagetsi padziko lapansi.

Mphamvu zamphamvu ku Spain

Ku Spain kuphunzira zamphamvuzi kumachitika makamaka ndi Institute of Hydraulics ya Yunivesite ya Cantabria, yomwe ili ndi thanki yayikulu yayikulu yofufuzira ndikuyesera zomwe zimadziwika kuti Nyanja ya Cantabrian ndi Nyanja (zomangamanga zam'madzi).

Matanki omwe atchulidwawa ndi a 44 mita mulifupi ndi 30 mita kutalika, motero amatha kutengera mafunde mpaka 20 mita ndi mphepo za 150 km / h.

Komabe, sitinasiyidwe kumbuyo, popeza mu 2011 the chomera choyamba chamadzi chomwe chili ku Motrico (Gulu).

Kuyika

Chipangizo chowongolera chili nacho Makina opanga magetsi 16 omwe amatha kupanga 600.000 kWh pachaka, ndiye kuti, anthu 600 amadya pafupifupi.

Kuphatikiza apo, chifukwa cha chapakati ichi matani mazana a CO2 sadzapita mumlengalenga chaka chilichonse, akuganiza kuti ili ndi kuyeretsa kofananako komwe kumatha kuyambitsa nkhalango pafupifupi 80 mahekitala.

Ntchitoyi idakhala ndi ndalama pafupifupi 6,7 miliyoni za euro, zomwe pafupifupi 2,3 zinali za chomera ndi zotsalira pantchito yapa doko.

Makina opanga magetsi, omwe amapanga pafupifupi 18,5 KWh, agawidwa m'magulu a 4 ndipo ali mchipinda chamakina, pamwamba pa jetty.

Kuphatikiza apo, dera lomwe limawabisalako lili mgawo limodzi pakati pa dike lokhala ndi kutalika kwa madzi okwanira 7 mita ndi pafupifupi 100 mita.

Ubwino ndi zovuta zamphamvu zamafunde

Mphamvu yamafunde ili ndi zambiri ubwino ndipo ena mwa iwo ndi awa:

  • Ndi gwero losatha la mphamvu komanso zongowonjezwdwa.
  • Izi yogawidwa m'malo akulu za dziko lapansi.
  • Zimakhala zachizolowezimosasamala nthawi ya chaka.

Komabe, mphamvu zamtunduwu zimapereka mndandanda wa zovuta zazikulu:

  • Zambiri kukula ndi mtengo wake chifukwa cha malo ake.
  • Kufunika kwa masamba ali ndi mawonekedwe  zomwe zimaloleza kuti dziwe limangidwe mosavuta komanso motsika mtengo.
  • La kupanga kwapakatikati, ngakhale zitha kunenedweratu, zamphamvu.
  • Zotheka zotsatira zovulaza pa chilengedwe monga kutera, kuchepa kwa magombe am'mphepete mwa nyanja, momwe mbalame ndi zamoyo zambiri zam'madzi zimadalira, kuchepa kwa malo oberekera zamoyo zam'madzi ndikupeza zotsalira zodetsa m'mitsinje zomwe zimaperekedwa ndi mitsinje.
  • Kuletsa kufikira madoko yomwe ili kumtunda.

Zovuta za mtundu uwu wamagetsi zimapangitsa kuti magwiritsidwe ake azikhala ovuta kwambiri, chifukwa chake kuyambitsa kwake sikungakhale kosavuta kupatula pazochitika zenizeni, momwe zimapezeka kuti zovuta zake ndizochepa kwambiri poyerekeza ndi maubwino ake.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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  1.   clemente wotsutsa anati

    Zaka zambiri zapitazo ndidakwanitsa kufuula "Eureka!" (Archimedes) ndikamayesera kunyumba ndimakwaniritsa njira yosavuta ya EOTRAC, yomwe imangogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yayikulu yamphamvu ya mphepo, mphamvu yayikulu yopanda malire, yomwe imangolekezera pakutsutsana kwa zinthuzo. Kenako ndidakwaniritsa njira yosavuta ya GEM yomwe imalola kugwiritsa ntchito mosiyana mphamvu yopanda malire yomwe imagwira masamba apamwamba (masamba) mazana kapena masauzande a mita mita ndipo ntchito yofananayo ikwaniritsa kuchepa kwa mafunde, ndi zina zotero mokweza - Ndinafuula "Eureka! Eureka!" chifukwa cha mchenga wochepa uyu kuti apange mphamvu zoyera, mwatsoka olamulira kutentha kwanyengo sakhala chete kapena amanditenga ngati "mtedza". ONANI zopangira zida zotsutsa pafoni
    Ndine wopuma pantchito wosavuta wobadwa mu 1938, PALIBE WONSE AMANDIPATSA MPIRA, Ndikufuna tonse pamodzi kuti tiwone, kumvetsetsa ndikukambirana momwe mphamvu yachilengedwe imatha kupangira mphamvu yoyera kuti ichepetse GHG ndikuletsa kutentha kwanyengo (moto wapadziko lonse) kuwononga zowonjezereka kuthekera kwa moyo wamunthu padziko lapansi.