Magetsi a nyukiliya

makina opangira magetsi a nyukiliya

M'munda wamagetsi, Magetsi a nyukiliya. Imadziwikanso ndi dzina la radioactivity. Ndikumangotulutsa chabe kwa ma particles kapena radiation kapena zonse nthawi imodzi. Tinthu tating'onoting'onoting'onoting'onoting'onoting'onoting'ono kameneka ndi ma radiation zimachokera pakuphulika kwa nuclides ena omwe amapanga. Cholinga cha mphamvu ya nyukiliya ndikuphwanya mawonekedwe amkati a maatomu kuti apange mphamvu kudzera pakuphulika kwa nyukiliya.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani kuti ma radiation a nyukiliya ndi chiyani, mawonekedwe ake ndi kufunikira kwake.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

malo owopsa a nyukiliya

Radioactivity ndi kutulutsa kokha kwa ma particles kapena radiation, kapena zonse ziwiri. Tinthu timeneti ndi cheza chochokera ku kuwonongeka kwa ma nuclide ena omwe amapanga. Amagawanika chifukwa chakapangidwe kamkati.

Kuwonongeka kwa radioactive kumachitika mosakhazikika. Ndiye kuti, omwe alibe mphamvu zokwanira zomangiriza mtimawo. Antoine-Henri Becquerel anapeza ma radiation mwangozi. Pambuyo pake, kudzera pakuyesa kwa Becquerel, Madame Curie adapeza zida zina zowulutsa ma radio. Pali mitundu iwiri ya cheza cha nyukiliya: yokumba ndi chilengedwe ma radioactivity.

Ma radioactivity achilengedwe ndi ma radioactivity omwe amapezeka m'chilengedwe chifukwa cha unyolo wazinthu zanyukiliya komanso magwero omwe sianthu. Zakhala zikupezeka m'chilengedwe. Ma radioactivity achilengedwe amathanso kuwonjezeka motere:

  • Zoyambitsa zachilengedwe. Mwachitsanzo, kuphulika kwa mapiri.
  • Zoyambitsa zapadera za anthu. Mwachitsanzo, kukumba mobisa kuti mumange maziko a nyumba kapena kupanga mphamvu za nyukiliya.

Kumbali inayi, yokumba ma radioactivity ndimayendedwe onse owulutsa ma radiation kapena ionizing ochokera kwa anthu. Kusiyana kokha pakati pa cheza chachilengedwe ndi cheza chopangidwa ndi anthu ndiye gwero lake. Zotsatira za mitundu iwiri ya radiation ndizofanana. Chitsanzo cha ma radioactivity opanga ndi ma radioactivity opangidwa ndi mankhwala a nyukiliya kapena zotulutsa za nyukiliya m'malo opangira zida za nyukiliya kupeza mphamvu zamagetsi.

Pazochitika zonsezi, ma radiation oyenda ndi ma radiation ndi kuwonongeka kwa beta komwe kumapangidwa ndi ma elekitironi. Kumbali ina, cheza chosalunjika cha ma radiation ndi ma radiation yamagetsi yamagetsi, monga cheza cha gamma, chomwe ndi ma photon. Pamene zinthu zopangidwa ndi cheza zopangidwa ndi anthu, monga magwero achilengedwe a radiation, zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kapena kutayidwa, zinyalala za nyukiliya zimapangidwa.

Mitundu ya radiation ya nyukiliya

Magetsi a nyukiliya

Pali mitundu itatu ya radiation ya nyukiliya yomwe inali kutulutsa: alpha, beta ndi gamma cheza. Ma particle a Alpha ndi omwe amakhala ndi chiwongola dzanja chabwino, tinthu tating'onoting'ono ta beta natoipa, ndipo cheza cha gamma sichilowerera.

Zitha kuganiziridwa Kutulutsa kwamagetsi kwamagetsi ku gamma radiation ndi X-ray. Mitundu yochokera ku ma alpha ndi beta imatulutsanso. Mtundu uliwonse wa umuna uli ndi nthawi yosiyana yolowera mu mphamvu ndi mphamvu ya ionization. Tikudziwa kuti mtundu uwu wa radiation ya nyukiliya imatha kuwononga moyo m'njira zosiyanasiyana. Tikuwunika ma radiation onse a nyukiliya omwe alipo ndi zotsatirapo zake:

Alpha tinthu

Alpha (α) tinthu tating'onoting'ono kapena ma alpha ray ndi mtundu wa mphamvu yayikulu yama ionizing tinthu tating'onoting'ono. Ilibe pafupifupi mphamvu yolowera m'matumba chifukwa ndi yayikulu. Amapangidwa ndi ma proton awiri ndi ma neutroni awiri, omwe amaphatikizidwa ndi magulu ankhondo amphamvu.

Magetsi a Alpha, chifukwa chamagetsi awo, amalumikizana kwambiri ndi zinthu. Amatengeka mosavuta ndi zinthuzo. Amatha kuwuluka mainchesi angapo mlengalenga. Amatha kulowetsedwa pakhungu lakunja la khungu la munthu, chifukwa chake saopseza moyo pokhapokha gwero litapumira kapena kumeza. Poterepa, komabe, kuwonongeka kudzakhala kwakukulu kuposa komwe kumayambitsidwa ndi radiation ina iliyonse. Mlingo waukulu, zizindikilo zonse za poyizoni wa radiation zidzawonekera.

Tinthu ta Beta

Magetsi a Beta ndi mtundu wa ma radiation otulutsa mitundu ina ya ma radioactive. Poyerekeza ndi kulumikizana kwa ma alpha tinthu, kulumikizana pakati pa tinthu ta beta ndi zinthu nthawi zambiri kumakhala kokulirapo kakhumi komanso kuthekera kwa ionization kofanana ndi gawo limodzi mwa magawo khumi. Zimatsekedwa kwathunthu ndi mamilimita angapo a aluminium.

Tinthu ta Gamma

Magetsi a Gamma ndi ma radiation yamagetsi yamagetsi yopangidwa ndi radioactivity. Amakhazikika pamtima osasintha ma proton ake. Amalowerera kwambiri kuposa ma radiation, koma ali ndi digirii yotsika ya ionization.

Pamene mtima wokondwerera wa atomiki umatulutsa cheza cha gamma, kuchuluka kwake ndi kuchuluka kwa atomiki sikusintha. Mutha kutaya mphamvu inayake. Kuchuluka kwa ma gamma kumatha kuwononga kwambiri ma cell a cell, ndichifukwa chake amagwiritsidwa ntchito poletsa chakudya ndi zida zamankhwala.

Ma radiation a nyukiliya m'malo opangira magetsi

chisokonezo

Chomera cha nyukiliya ndi mafakitale omwe amagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu za nyukiliya kuti apange magetsi. Ndi gawo la banja lazomera zamagetsi, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti imagwiritsa ntchito kutentha kupanga magetsi. Kutentha kumeneku kumabwera chifukwa cha kuchotsedwa kwa zinthu monga uranium ndi plutonium. Kugwiritsa ntchito malo opanga zida za nyukiliya kutengera kugwiritsa ntchito kutentha kuyendetsa makina amagetsi kudzera mu nthunzi yamadzi, zomwe zimalumikizidwa ndi magudumu. Makina opanga zida za nyukiliya ndi malo omwe amatha kuyambitsa, kusamalira ndikuwongolera mayendedwe amtundu wa fission, ndipo ali ndi njira zokwanira zochotsera kutentha komwe kumachitika. Kuti mupeze nthunzi yamadzi, uranium kapena plutonium imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mafuta. Njirayi ikhoza kukhala yosavuta m'magawo asanu:

  • Kutulutsa kwa uranium kumachitika mu makina anyukiliya, kutulutsa mphamvu zambiri zotenthetsera madzi mpaka zitasanduka nthunzi.
  • Nthunzi imaperekedwa kwa wopanga ma steam turbine omwe amapyola potuluka nthunzi.
  • Kamodzi kumeneko, masamba chopangira mphamvu atembenuza ndi kusuntha jenereta pansi pa zochita za nthunzi, potero amasintha makina amagetsi kukhala magetsi.
  • Mpweya wamadzi ukadutsa mu chopangira mphamvu, umatumizidwa ku condenser, komwe umazizira ndikusandulika madzi.
  • Pambuyo pake, madziwo amayendetsedwa kuti apezenso nthunzi, motero kutseka dera lamadzi.

Zotsalira za uranium fission zimasungidwa mkati mwa fakitaleyo, m'madziwe apadera a konkriti azinthu zamagetsi.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za ma radiation a nyukiliya ndi mawonekedwe ake.


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