Kodi chomera chamagetsi chamagetsi ndi chiyani

makhalidwe a zomera

Pali njira zambiri zopangira mphamvu kutengera mtundu wamafuta omwe timagwiritsa ntchito komanso malo kapena njira yogwiritsira ntchito. Makina opanga mphamvu zamagetsi amatchedwanso kuti magetsi opangira magetsi ndipo amagwiritsa ntchito mafuta kuti apange magetsi. Anthu ambiri sakudziwa bwino Kodi chomera chamagetsi ndi chiyani?

Chifukwa chake, tipereka nkhaniyi kukuwuzani chomwe chopangira mphamvu zamagetsi, mawonekedwe ake ndi momwe amapangira mphamvu zamagetsi.

Kodi chomera chamagetsi chamagetsi ndi chiyani

Kodi chomera chamagetsi ndi chiyani?

Mitengo yamagetsi yamagetsi yodziwika bwino, yomwe imadziwikanso kuti mafuta ochiritsira amagetsi, imagwiritsa ntchito mafuta (gasi, malasha kapena mafuta amafuta) kuti apange magetsi kudzera potentha kwamadzi otentha. Mawu oti "ochiritsira" amagwiritsidwa ntchito kusiyanitsa iwo ndi magetsi ena amagetsi, monga kuphatikiza kophatikizana kapena magetsi amagetsi. Makina opanga mphamvu zamagetsi amapangidwa ndi zinthu zingapo zomwe zimatha kusintha mafuta kukhala magetsi. Zigawo zake zazikulu ndi izi:

  • Kukatentha: Danga lomwe limasinthira madzi kukhala nthunzi kudzera poyaka mafuta. Pochita izi, mphamvu zamagetsi zimasandulika mphamvu yamatenthedwe.
  • Zojambula: chitoliro chomwe madzi amazungulira ndikusintha nthunzi. Pakati pawo, kutentha kumachitika pakati pa mpweya wabwino ndi madzi.
  • Mpweya wotentha: Makina omwe amatenga nthunzi yamadzi, chifukwa chazovuta zamagetsi ndi kutentha, olamulira omwe amadutsamo amayenda. Mtundu wamtunduwu nthawi zambiri umakhala ndi matupi angapo, kuthamanga kwambiri, kuthamanga kwapakati komanso kutsika pang'ono kuti apange mpweya wabwino wamadzi.
  • Jenereta: Makina omwe amasonkhanitsa mphamvu zamagetsi zopangidwa kudzera mu shaft ya chopangira mphamvu ndikusintha kukhala mphamvu yamagetsi kudzera pamagetsi amagetsi. Chomera chamagetsi chimatembenuza mphamvu yamakina a shaft kukhala magawo atatu osinthira pano. Jenereta yolumikizidwa ndi migodi yomwe imadutsa matupi osiyanasiyana.

Kugwiritsa ntchito chomera chamagetsi

Kutentha kwamagetsi

Pazipangizo zamagetsi zamafuta, mafuta amawotchedwa mu chowotcha kuti apange mphamvu yotenthetsera madzi, yomwe imasandulika nthunzi ndi kuthamanga kwambiri. Nthendayi itembenuza chopangira chopangira chachikulu, chomwe chimasinthira mphamvu yamphamvuyo kukhala mphamvu yamagetsi, yomwe Kenako amasandulika mphamvu yamagetsi m'malo ena. Magetsi amadutsa mu chosinthira chomwe chimakulitsa mphamvu yake ndikuilola kuti ifalitsidwe, potero kumachepetsa zotayika chifukwa cha Joule. Nthunzi yomwe imasiya chopangira mafuta imatumizidwa ku condenser, komwe imasandulika madzi ndikubwezeretsanso kukatentha kuti iyambe kuyambitsa kwatsopano kotentha.

Mosasamala mafuta omwe mumagwiritsa ntchito, kugwira ntchito kwachikhalidwe chamagetsi champhamvu chimodzimodzi. Komabe, pali kusiyana pakati pamankhwala oyendetsa mafuta asanapangidwe kale ndi kapangidwe ka boiler.

Chifukwa chake, ngati magetsi akupangira malasha, mafuta amafunika kuphwanyidwa kale. Mu chomera cha mafuta mafuta amatenthedwa, pomwe mu gasi lachilengedwe mafuta amafika mwachindunji kudzera paipiipi, chifukwa chake sipafunikira kusungidwapo. Pankhani ya chida chosakaniza, mankhwala ofanana amagwiritsidwa ntchito pamafuta onse.

Zovuta zachilengedwe

Kodi chomera chotentha komanso chopanda magetsi

Makina amtundu wamagetsi amtunduwu amakhudza chilengedwe m'njira ziwiri zazikulu: kutaya zinyalala mumlengalenga komanso potumiza kutentha. M'malo oyamba, kuwotcha mafuta kwakumbuyo kumatulutsa tinthu tina tomwe timalowa mlengalenga, zomwe zitha kuwononga chilengedwe cha Dziko Lapansi. Pachifukwa ichi, mitundu iyi yazomera imakhala ndi chimney chachitali chomwe imatha kufalitsa tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timachepetsa kuchepa kwa mpweya. Kuphatikiza apo, zomera zamagetsi zamagetsi zimakhalanso ndi zosefera tinthu, zomwe zimatha kutchera ambiri mwa iwo ndikulepheretsa kutuluka panja.

Pankhani yotumiza kutentha, malo opangira magetsi otseguka amatha kuyambitsa mitsinje ndi nyanja kutentha. Mwamwayi, izi zitha kuthetsedwa pogwiritsa ntchito firiji kuziziritsa madzi kutentha komwe kumayenera chilengedwe.

Zipangizo zamagetsi zotentha zimatulutsa zowononga zowopsa zingapo zakuthupi ndi zamankhwala, zomwe zimakhudza thanzi la munthu. Zotsatira zoyipa mthupi la munthu zimawonetsedwa munthawi yochepa, yaying'ono komanso yayitali, kukulitsa ndi kumasula zovuta za zoyipitsa zomwe zidalipo. Zovuta zomwe zimakhudza thanzi la munthu zimatha kuphatikizira matenda osiyanasiyana, kuchokera kufatsa mpaka zovuta komanso zoopsa. Izi ndizo zoipitsa zazikulu:

  • Zowononga thupi: Zoyipitsa zamayimbidwe zomwe zimachitika chifukwa cha phokoso lomwe limachitika chifukwa cha magwiridwe antchito zimatha kusintha thupi la munthu, lomwe limakhala lachiwiri pakutha kwakanthawi kwakanthawi kogona. Zoyipitsa zamagetsi zamagetsi, ndiye kuti, ma radiation amagetsi omwe amapezeka ndikupeza ndikugawa magetsi, makamaka amasintha machitidwe amanjenje ndi amtima.
  • Mankhwala oipitsa: CO2, CO, SO2, ma particles, ozoni otentha, amachulukitsa kuchuluka kwa matenda am'mapapo ndi amtima, ndikuchepetsa chitetezo chathu chamthupi, mankhwala owopsa (ochokera ku arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, phosphorous, benzene , formaldehyde, naphthalene, toluene ndi pyrene. Ngakhale zilipo pang'ono, ndi zinthu zowopsa chifukwa zimatha kuyambitsa matenda oopsa komanso osachiritsika kwa anthu owonekera. Matenda obereka komanso chiopsezo chowonjezeka cha khansa)

Chomera chamagetsi

Zomera zamagetsi zimadziwika ndi kugwiritsa ntchito madzi kapena madzi ena, omwe amakhala m'magawo awiri osiyana pantchito, makamaka mawonekedwe a nthunzi ndi madzi. M'zaka zaposachedwa, ukadaulo wapamwamba umathandizidwanso, zomwe sizitsogolera ku gawo lotchedwa gawo, lomwe linali gawo lazokhazikitsira izi m'mbuyomu.

Zomera zamagetsi izi zitha kugawidwa m'magulu angapo: mizere yamagetsi, ma jenereta otentha, ma turbine ndi ma condensers. Ngakhale tanthauzo la chopangira mphamvu yamagetsi ndilovuta kwambiri, Mitundu yosiyanasiyana yazoyendera imatha kuwonedwa yomwe imakwaniritsa izis, makamaka omwe amapezeka kwambiri ndi kuzungulira kwa Rankine ndi kuzungulira kwa Hirn.

Asanalowe kukatentha, madzi amadzimadzi amadutsa pakakonzedwe kake komanso kuponderezana. M'malo mwake, mukalowa kukatentha, pali zowonjezera zowonjezera, ndiye kuti, zotenthetsera kutentha, momwe nthunzi yowonjezera imakonzeratu pang'ono madzi amadzimadzi. Izi zimapangitsa kutentha kwakukulu kulowa mu jenereta ya nthunzi, potero zimawonjezera kukolola kwa mbewu.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za chomwe chimakhala chotenthetsera mphamvu ndi mawonekedwe ake.


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