Francis

Francis

Chimodzi mwazinthu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi popanga mphamvu zamagetsi ndi Francis. Ndi makina a turbo omwe adapangidwa ndi James B. Francis ndipo imagwira ntchito pochita ndi kusakanikirana kosakanikirana. Ndi ma turbine amadzimadzi omwe amatha kupereka kudumpha kosiyanasiyana komanso kuchuluka kwa magwiridwe antchito ndikugwira ntchito m'malo otsetsereka kuyambira mita ziwiri mpaka ma mita mazana angapo.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zamakhalidwe ndi kufunikira kwa chopangira mafuta cha Francis.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

Francis turbine mbali

Mtundu wamtunduwu umatha kugwira ntchito mosafanana kuyambira mita zingapo mpaka mazana amamita. Mwanjira imeneyi, idapangidwa kuti izitha kugwira ntchito pamitu yambiri komanso kuyenda. Chifukwa cha guluu wokwanira kwambiri womwe wamangidwa komanso zida zake, mtunduwu ndi umodzi mwamomwe ukugwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri padziko lapansi. Kugwiritsa ntchito kwake kwakukulu ndikumunda wamagetsi opangira magetsi.

Mphamvu zamagetsi zamagetsi, monga tikudziwira, ndi mtundu wamagetsi omwe amatha kugwiritsa ntchito madzi omwe ali muzidebe kuti apange magetsi. Makina opanga makinawa ndi ovuta komanso okwera mtengo kuti apange koma amatha kugwira ntchito kwazaka zambiri. Izi zimapangitsa kuti ndalama zomwe zimagulitsidwa koyambirira pamitengo yamtunduwu ikhale yayikulu kwambiri kuposa enawo. Komabe, ndikofunikira chifukwa ndalama zoyambilira zimatha kulipira mzaka zoyambilira. Monga ndi mphamvu ya photovoltaic momwe timagwiritsira ntchito mapanelo azoyendera dzuwa ndi moyo wazaka 25, titha kubweza ndalamazo pazaka 10-15 zogwiritsidwa ntchito.

Turbine ya Francis imakhala ndi kapangidwe ka hydrodynamic komwe Zimatitsimikizira kuti tidzagwira bwino ntchito chifukwa chakuti palibe madzi omwe amawonongeka. Amawoneka bwino kwambiri ndipo amakhala ndi mtengo wotsika wokonza. Ichi ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zopindulitsa kwambiri zamtundu wamagetsi chifukwa kukonza kumakhala kotsika komanso zomwe zimachepetsa ndalama zambiri. Kukhazikitsidwa kwa chopangira chopangira cha Francis chotalika kuposa ma 800 mita sikulimbikitsidwa konse popeza pali mphamvu zambiri zokoka. Komanso sikulangizidwa kukhazikitsa mtundu wamtunduwu m'malo momwe pali mayendedwe akulu.

Makina mu turbine ya Francis

Kupanga magetsi

Cavitation ndi gawo lofunikira lomwe tiyenera kuyang'anira nthawi zonse. Ndi zotsatira za hydrodynamic zomwe zimachitika maenje a nthunzi akamapangidwa m'madzi omwe akudutsa m'magetsi. Monga momwe zimakhalira ndi madzi, zimatha kuchitika ndi madzi ena aliwonse omwe amakhala amadzimadzi komanso momwe amathandizira pazovuta zomwe zimakumana ndi zovuta pakusokonezeka. Poterepa, zimachitika pamene madzimadzi amadutsa mwachangu kwambiri koma pamakhala kuwonongeka pakati pamadzi ndi kusungira nthawi zonse kwa Bernoulli.

Zitha kuchitika kuti kuthamanga kwa nthunzi kwamadzimadzi kuli m'njira yoti mamolekyulu amatha kusintha nthawi yomweyo amakhala nthunzi ndikupanga thovu lambiri. Mphuno izi zimadziwika ngati ming'alu. Apa ndipomwe lingaliro la cavitation limachokera.

Mitundu yonseyi pitani kumadera omwe kuli kukakamizidwa kwambiri kupita komwe kulibe zovuta zambiri. Paulendowu, nthunziyo imabwerera mwadzidzidzi kumalo amadzimadzi. Izi zimapangitsa kuti thovu limalize kuphwanya, kukhumudwitsa ndikupanga njira ya gasi yomwe imatulutsa mphamvu zambiri pamtunda wolimba komanso yomwe imatha kusweka panthawi yomwe ikuwombana.

Zonsezi mwina zimatipangitsa kuti tizikumbukiranso kupezeka mu chopangira cha Francis.

Francis turbine mbali

Makhalidwe a chopangira mphamvu cha Francis

Mitundu yama turbines yamtunduwu imakhala ndimagawo osiyanasiyana ndipo iliyonse imayang'anira kutsimikizira kupangidwa kwa mphamvu yamagetsi. Tikuwunika zonsezi:

  • Mwauzimu chipinda: Ndi gawo la turbine ya Francis yomwe imayambitsa kugawira kwamadzimadzi polowera. Chipinda chakuzungulirachi chimakhala ndi nkhono ndipo ndichifukwa choti liwiro lamadzi limayenera kukhala lokhazikika nthawi iliyonse. Ichi ndichifukwa chake ziyenera kukhala ngati mawonekedwe ozungulira komanso nkhono. Gawo la chipinda chino limatha kukhala la mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Kumbali imodzi, amakona anayi ndi kuzungulira kwina, kuzungulira kumakhala kofala kwambiri.
  • Wogulitsa: Ndi gawo la chopangira ichi chomwe chimapangidwa ndi masamba okhazikika. Masamba awa ali ndi ntchito yokhazikika. Amagwira ntchito yosamalira kamangidwe ka chipinda chakuzunguliracho chomwe tatchula pamwambapa ndikuchiyimitsa kokwanira kuti chitha kuthandizira kapangidwe kake ka hydrodynamic ndikuchepetsa kuchepa kwamadzi.
  • Wogulitsa: gawoli limamangidwa ndikusuntha ma vanes owongolera. Zinthu izi ziyenera kuwongolera madzi molunjika kwa Aarabu omwe amayenda mosakhazikika omwe adakhazikika. Kuphatikiza apo, wogawirayu ali ndi udindo wowongolera mayendedwe omwe amaloledwa podutsa chopangira cha Francis. Umu ndi momwe mphamvu yamagetsi imasinthidwira kotero kuti iyenera kusinthidwa momwe ingathere pakusintha kwamagetsi kwamagetsi. Nthawi yomweyo, imatha kuwongolera mayendedwe amadzimadzi kuti apititse patsogolo makinawo.
  • Impeller kapena ozungulira: Ndi mtima wa chopangira cha Francis. Izi ndichifukwa choti ndi malo omwe amasinthira mphamvu pakati pamakina onse. Mphamvu yamadzimadzi nthawi zambiri imadutsa pamtunda ndi kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zakuthwa, mphamvu yomwe kupanikizika kuli nayo komanso kuthekera kwakukulu pokhudzana ndi kutalika kwake. Makina opangira magetsi ndi omwe amachititsa kuti mphamvuzi zizikhala zamagetsi. Woyendetsa ndegeyo ali ndi udindo wofalitsa mphamvu imeneyi kudzera mumtondo kupita kwa wopanga magetsi komwe kutembenuka komaliza kumachitika. Itha kukhala ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana kutengera kuchuluka kwa makina omwe makinawo adapangira.
  • Suction chubu: Ndi gawo lomwe madzimadzi amatuluka mu chopangira mphamvu. Ntchito ya gawoli ndikupereka kupitiriza kwa madzi ndikubwezeretsa kulumpha komwe kwatayika m'malo omwe ali pamwamba pamadzi. Mwambiri, gawoli limamangidwa ngati choperekera kuti lipange zotsatira zoyamwa zomwe zimathandizira kupezanso mphamvu zomwe sizinaperekedwe ku rotor.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi izi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za chopangira chopangira cha Francis.


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