Chomera cha Almaraz cha nyukiliya

Chomera cha Almaraz cha nyukiliya

Lero tikambirana za chomera china cha ku Spain chogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu za nyukiliya chofunikira kwambiri mgawo lamagetsi. Zili pafupi chomera cha Almaraz cha nyukiliya. Ili m'chigawo cha Almaraz de Tajo (Cáceres). Madera omwe amapezeka ali ndi malo okwana mahekitala 1683 ndipo sikuti ndi boma la Almaraz lokha, komanso gawo la Saucedilla, Serrejón ndi Romangordo. Malowa adasankhidwa kuti amange chomeracho chifukwa ali ndi seismotectonic, geological, nyengo komanso hydrological.

M'nkhaniyi tiwunikanso bwino chomera cha Almaraz. Ngati mukuwopa mphamvu za nyukiliya ndipo mukufuna kudziwa bwino momwe zida zamagetsi zimagwirira ntchito, iyi ndiye positi yanu

Kukhazikitsa malo opangira zida za nyukiliya ku Almaraz

Chithunzi chamlengalenga cha chomeracho

Chomera chopangira zida za nyukiliya chili ndi makina awiri a 2947 MW opangira magetsi. Iliyonse ya iwo ili ndi madera ozizira atatu. Pakapangidwe kake ndi zomangamanga pamakhala zopereka zaku Spain ku 80%. Zochita zake zimayang'aniridwa ndi Nuclear Safety Council (CSN).

Makina awiri opepuka amadzimadzi amagwiritsa ntchito uranium oxide ngati mafuta. Izi zimapangitsa mphamvu yake yamagetsi ndi 1.049,43 MW ndi 1.044,45 MW, motsatana. Chomera cha nyukiliya chili ndi 53% ya Iberdrola Generación Nuclear, SAU, ndi Endesa Generación, SAU ndi 36% komanso ndi Gas Natural Fenosa Generación, SLU ndi 11%.

Maseketi ozizira amapezeka m'malo omwe amakonzedwa mnyumba iliyonse yamagetsi. Nthunzi yomwe imabwera kuchokera ku ma jenereta imayendetsedwa ku nyumba yopangira ma turbine yomwe imakhala ndimagulu awiri amtundu umodzi mchipinda chimodzi, koma mosadalira.

Malo ozizira amakhala wamba m'makina onse awiri kuchokera kuzizira. Pofuna kuziziritsa makinawo komanso kuti asatenthedwe kwambiri ndimankhwala omwe amachitika mkati mwa chomera cha nyukiliya, malo osungira a Arrocampo amangidwa. Dziwe ili lamangidwa kokha kuti kuziziritsa kwa chomera cha nyukiliya.

Kutentha ndi kupanga mafuta

Makhalidwe ndi kutentha kwa kutentha

Chomera cha Almaraz cha nyukiliya chimatha kutsitsa mu makina ake pafupifupi matani 72 a uranium oxide ophatikizidwa ndi Uranium 235. Izi zimachitika ndi chiwonetsero cha 4,5% kuti muchepetse reagents.

Mafutawa amatha kuwoneka ngati ma pellets ozungulira a 8,1mm m'mimba mwake ndi 9,8mm m'litali. Amadziphatika m'machubu zachitsulo zircaloy alloy zomwe ndizoposa 4 mita kutalika ndi 10 mm m'mimba mwake. Machubuwa amaphatikizidwanso m'magulu pafupifupi 289 mayunitsi. Amadziwika kuti mafuta ndipo amapangidwira mayunitsi kuti azisungira ndodo zamafuta. Zina zonse ndimachubu zomwe zimaperekanso kukhazikika pamapangidwe azida ndi zida zowongolera.

Chombo cha riyakitala chili ndi mafuta okwanira 157. Kuti zochita zisayime ndikupanga magetsi mosalekeza, riyakitala imayenera kupangidwanso nthawi ndi nthawi. Izi zimachitika posintha gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu azinthu zamafuta.

Kutipatsa lingaliro, tsiku limodzi lopanga ku nyukiliya ili lofanana ndi kugwiritsira ntchito migolo 68.000 yamafuta mufakitale yamafuta omwewo. Ngati tiziyerekeza ndi chomera chamagetsi chamagetsi wamba omwe amagwiritsa ntchito malasha ngati mafuta, matani 14.000 ake angagwiritsidwe ntchito patsiku. Mwanjira imeneyi, chomera chamagetsi cha Almaraz amapewa kutulutsa kwa matani 48 miliyoni a CO2 m'mlengalenga. Kuchepetsa kumeneku ndikuthokoza kutentha kwanyengo komanso zovuta zakusintha kwanyengo padziko lapansi.

Madzi ndi mbadwo wa nthunzi

Firiji

Kupanga nthunzi yofunikira kutenthetsera ma reactor pali gawo loyambirira. Zapangidwa chotengera chomwe chili ndi phata, chosindikizira ndi malupu atatu. Chilichonse mwa malupuwa chimakhala ndi makina opangira nthunzi komanso pampu yayikulu. Madzi oyenda mkati amayenera kuthiridwa m'madzi kuti asawononge makina. Momwe imadutsa mkatimo imatenga kutentha komwe kumapangidwa chifukwa cha kutentha komwe kumachitika chifukwa cha Kukonzekera kwa nyukiliya ndikupita nayo kwa wopanga nthunzi.

Kamodzi mkati mwake, kayendedwe kachiwiri kamadzi kamakhala ndi ntchito yolowetsa kutentha kwa mapaipi momwe madzi am'mbuyomu amazungulira. Madzi onsewa amadziyimira pawokha. Titha kunena kuti kutuluka koyamba kwa madzi ndi komwe kumapangitsa kuti madzi azitentha ndipo kuyambaku kwachiwiri kuziziritsa koyamba. Zonsezi zimathandiza kupewa kutenthedwa.

Makina ozungulira ndi ozizira amakhala mkati mwa mpanda wa hemetic ndi madzi, wotchedwa «Containment», Pokhala ndi konkire wama cylindrical wokwanira 1,4 m wandiweyani pamtunda wake komanso wokutira chitsulo chotalika cha 10 mm. Chithandizo cha konkriti chimakhala ndi makulidwe a 3,5 m.

Chombocho chili ndi kutsekedwa kwapamwamba komwe kumawoneka ngati dome la hemispherical. Ntchito yoyang'anira dera imakwaniritsidwa ndi mitundu ingapo yothandizira. Machitidwewa ali ndi ntchito yofunikira kuti pasakhale ngozi. Ndizokhudza kuonetsetsa kuti voliyumu, kuyeretsa ndi kutsuka kwa refrigerant. Pachifukwa ichi ili ndi njira zabwino zowongolera mankhwala ndikuchotsa zinyalala zolimba, zamadzimadzi komanso zamadzimadzi. Ilinso ndi ntchito zina zofunika kuti opareshoni ikhale yolondola.

Kupanga magetsi

Mpweya wotulutsa

Pomaliza tafika kumapeto komaliza komwe chomera chamagetsi cha Almaraz chimapanga magetsi. Kugwira kwake ntchito ndikofanana ndi zida zina zamagetsi monga ya Cofrentes. Kudera lachiwiri, nthunzi wopanga ma jenereta amatsogoleredwa kumalo ozizira kudzera mu chopangira mphamvu. Turbine iyi imathandizira kusintha mphamvu yamafuta kukhala mphamvu zamagetsi.

Kasinthasintha a masamba chopangira mphamvu imayendetsa chosinthira chapakati mwachindunji ndipo amapanga mphamvu zamagetsi. Mpweya wamadzi womwe umatuluka mu chopangira mphamvu umakhala wamadzi mu condenser, ndikubwerera, pogwiritsa ntchito mapampu a condensate ndi feedwater, kwa wopanga nthunzi kuti ayambitsenso kayendedwe kake. Njira zingapo zokonzedweratu zimaphatikizidwa mgawo lino kuti zithandizire magwiridwe antchito a thermodynamic. Direct conduction (by-pass) imayang'anira kuyendetsa nthunzi kuchokera polowera kupita ku makina othamanga kwambiri kupita ku condenser.

Ndi izi mudzatha kudziwa mozama momwe kampani yamagetsi ya Almaraz imagwirira ntchito.


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