Conductive thiab insulating cov ntaub ntawv

cov khoom siv hluav taws xob

lub conductive thiab insulating cov ntaub ntawv lawv raug cais raws li lawv tus cwj pwm hais txog hluav taws xob. Muaj cov uas muaj peev xwm ua tau hluav taws xob thiab lwm yam uas, ntawm qhov tsis sib xws, ua tsis tau. Cov ntaub ntawv no muaj cov yam ntxwv sib txawv thiab siv nyob rau hauv ntau qhov chaw ntawm kev lag luam thiab hauv tsev.

Hauv tsab xov xwm no peb yuav qhia koj txhua yam koj yuav tsum paub txog cov khoom siv hluav taws xob thiab insulating thiab lawv txhua tus yog dab tsi.

Conductive thiab insulating cov ntaub ntawv

conductive thiab insulating cov ntaub ntawv

Cov ntaub ntawv tuaj yeem muab faib ua ob pawg dav: conductors thiab insulators. Nws yuav yog qhov tseeb dua los txhais lawv ua tus coj zoo thiab cov neeg ua haujlwm tsis zoo, nyob ntawm seb txhua yam khoom txhawb lossis cuam tshuam kev tsav tsheb. Qhov kev faib tawm no cuam tshuam rau thermal conductivity (xws li hloov hluav taws xob) lossis hluav taws xob conductivity (piv txwv li tam sim no ntws).

Txawm hais tias cov khoom siv hluav taws xob los yog tsis yog nyob ntawm qhov yooj yim uas cov electrons tuaj yeem dhau los ntawm nws. Cov protons tsis txav mus los vim hais tias, txawm hais tias lawv nqa hluav taws xob, lawv txuas nrog lwm cov protons thiab neutrons hauv cov nucleus. Valence electrons zoo li exoplanets orbiting hnub qub. Lawv nyiam txaus nyob hauv qhov chaw, tab sis Nws tsis yog ib txwm siv ntau lub zog kom lawv tawm ntawm qhov chaw.

Cov hlau yooj yim poob thiab nce electrons, yog li lawv tswj cov npe ntawm cov conductors. Organic molecules feem ntau yog insulators, ib feem vim lawv tau tuav ua ke los ntawm covalent bonds (cov electrons), tab sis kuj vim hydrogen bonds pab stabilize ntau molecules. Feem ntau cov ntaub ntawv tsis zoo conductors lossis zoo insulators. Lawv tsis ua hluav taws xob yooj yim, tab sis nrog lub zog txaus, electrons txav mus.

Qee cov ntaub ntawv insulating muaj nyob hauv lub xeev ntshiab, tab sis lawv coj los yog hnov ​​​​mob yog tias lawv tau doped nrog me me ntawm lwm cov khoom lossis yog tias lawv muaj impurities. Piv txwv li, feem ntau ceramics yog cov insulators zoo heev, tab sis yog tias koj hloov lawv, koj tuaj yeem tau txais superconductors. Cov dej ntshiab yog cov rwb thaiv tsev, tab sis cov dej qias neeg tsis tshua muaj hluav taws xob, thaum cov dej ntsev nrog cov ions dawb-floating ua tau zoo.

Dab tsi yog cov khoom siv conductive?

conductive thiab insulating cov ntaub ntawv

Cov khoom siv hluav taws xob yog cov khoom siv uas tso cai rau cov hluav taws xob ntws tawm ntawm cov khoom. Cov khoom ua los ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob yuav tso cai rau kev xa mus thoob plaws tag nrho cov khoom ntawm qhov chaw. Yog tias tus nqi raug xa mus rau ib qho khoom ntawm ib qho chaw, nws raug xa tawm sai sai rau tag nrho cov khoom ntawm qhov chaw.

Kev faib tawm ntawm tus nqi yog qhov tshwm sim ntawm kev txav ntawm electrons. Cov khoom siv hluav taws xob tso cai rau cov khoom xa hluav taws xob los ntawm ib qho mus rau lwm qhov vim tias cov khoom siv hluav taws xob yuav ib txwm faib nws cov nqi kom txog thaum lub zog tag nrho ntawm cov hluav taws xob ntau dhau raug txo qis. Nyob rau hauv txoj kev no, yog tias tus neeg xyuas pib raug them nrog lwm yam khoom, tus neeg xyuas pib tuaj yeem hloov nws cov nqi mus rau qhov khoom ntawd.

Kev hloov pauv ntawm cov khoom yuav tshwm sim ntau dua yog tias qhov khoom thib ob yog ua los ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob. Conductors tso cai hloov pauv los ntawm kev txav dawb ntawm electrons.

Dab tsi yog cov khoom siv semiconductor?

hlau

Ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob peb pom cov ntaub ntawv uas muaj qhov ua haujlwm zoo ib yam, tab sis kuj tseem tuaj yeem ua cov insulators, txawm tias qhov no nyob ntawm ntau yam. Cov xwm txheej no yog:

  • hluav taws xob teb
  • sib nqus
  • siab
  • xwm txheej hluav taws xob
  • qhov kub ntawm koj ib puag ncig

Feem ntau siv cov khoom siv semiconductor yog silicon, germanium thiab tsuas yog tsis ntev los no tau siv sulfur raws li cov khoom siv semiconductor.

Dab tsi yog cov khoom siv superconducting?

Cov khoom no yog fascinating vim hais tias nws muaj lub peev xwm los tsim cov khoom siv hluav taws xob tam sim no, tab sis nyob rau hauv cov xwm txheej zoo, tsis muaj kev tiv thaiv lossis tsis muaj zog.

Feem ntau, cov resistivity ntawm hlau conductors txo nrog txo qhov kub thiab txias. Thaum qhov kub tseem ceeb tau mus txog, qhov kev tiv thaiv ntawm lub superconductor poob qis, tab sis ua kom lub zog sab hauv txuas ntxiv mus, txawm tias tsis muaj zog. Superconductivity yog tsim.

Nws tshwm sim nyob rau hauv ntau yam ntaub ntawv, nrog rau tej yam yooj yim alloys xws li tin los yog txhuas uas tsis muaj hluav taws xob tsis kam, yog li tiv thaiv cov khoom los ntawm kev nkag mus rau nws lub npe. Uas yog cov nyhuv Meissner, nws tso cai rau cov khoom yuav tsum tau repelled, ua kom nws ntab.

Dab tsi yog cov khoom siv insulating

Tsis zoo li cov khoom siv hluav taws xob, cov khoom siv hluav taws xob yog cov khoom siv uas tiv thaiv kev ywj pheej ntawm electrons los ntawm atom mus rau atom thiab los ntawm molecule mus rau molecule. Yog hais tias lub load yog pauv mus rau lub cais ntawm ib qho chaw, lub load tshaj yuav nyob twj ywm nyob rau hauv thawj qhov chaw ntawm lub load. Insulating hais tsis pub dawb khiav ntawm electrons, yog li tus nqi yog tsis tshua muaj sib npaug ntawm cov khoom siv insulating.

Txawm hais tias insulators tsis muaj txiaj ntsig rau kev hloov pauv, ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv kev sim electrostatic thiab ua qauv qhia. Cov khoom siv hluav taws xob feem ntau yog ntsia rau ntawm cov khoom siv insulating. Qhov kev npaj ntawm cov conductors saum toj no lub insulator tiv thaiv kev hloov pauv ntawm tus nqi ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob mus rau nws qhov chaw nyob ib puag ncig, tsis txhob muaj xwm txheej xws li luv luv circuits lossis electrocution. Qhov kev npaj no tso cai rau peb los tswj cov khoom siv hluav taws xob yam tsis tau kov nws.

Yog li peb tuaj yeem hais tias cov khoom siv insulating ua haujlwm ua tus kov rau tus neeg xyuas pib rau saum lub rooj kuaj mobile. Piv txwv li, yog tias ib qho txhuas soda tuaj yeem siv los thauj cov kev sim, lub kaus mom yuav tsum tau mounted rau saum lub khob yas. Lub iav ua raws li cov insulator, tiv thaiv cov dej qab zib tuaj yeem los ntawm kev xau.

Piv txwv ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob thiab rwb thaiv tsev

Piv txwv ntawm cov khoom siv conductive muaj xws li hauv qab no:

  • nyiaj
  • tooj liab
  • los yog
  • txhuas
  • hlau
  • hlau
  • tooj dag
  • tooj dag
  • mercury
  • graphite
  • dej hiav txwv
  • pob zeb ua

Piv txwv ntawm cov ntaub ntawv insulating muaj xws li hauv qab no:

  • tsom iav
  • roj hmab
  • roj av
  • kev asphalt
  • fiberglass
  • iav plooj
  • ceramic
  • quartz
  • paj rwb (qhuav)
  • ntawv (qhuav)
  • ntoo qhuav)
  • cov yas
  • huab cua
  • diamonds
  • dej ntshiab
  • lwv

Kev faib cov ntaub ntawv rau hauv pawg ntawm cov neeg xyuas pib thiab cov insulators yog ib yam ntawm kev faib khoom. Nws yog qhov tsim nyog los tso cov khoom nyob rau qhov chaw raws qhov txuas mus ntxiv.

Nws yuav tsum to taub tias tsis yog txhua yam khoom siv hluav taws xob muaj tib yam conductivity, thiab tsis yog tag nrho cov insulators muaj qhov sib npaug ntawm qhov txav ntawm electrons. Conductivity yog piv rau cov pob tshab ntawm qee cov ntaub ntawv rau lub teeb.: Cov ntaub ntawv uas yooj yim "dhau" lub teeb yog hu ua "pob tshab", thaum cov khoom uas tsis yooj yim "dhau" yog hu ua "opaque". Txawm li cas los xij, tsis yog tag nrho cov ntaub ntawv pob tshab muaj tib yam khoom siv kho qhov muag. Ib yam mus rau hluav taws xob conductors, qee qhov zoo dua lwm tus.

Cov uas muaj cov conductivity siab, hu ua superconductors, muab tso rau ntawm ib kawg thiab cov khoom siv hluav taws xob qis yog muab tso rau ntawm lwm qhov kawg. Raws li koj tuaj yeem pom saum toj no, cov hlau yuav muab tso rau ze ntawm qhov kawg ntawm cov conductive, thaum lub khob yuav muab tso rau ntawm qhov kawg ntawm qhov txuas ntxiv. Cov conductivity ntawm cov hlau yuav ua tau ib tug trillion trillion zaus ntawm iav.

Kub kuj cuam tshuam rau conductivity. Raws li qhov kub thiab txias, cov atoms thiab electrons nce zog. Qee cov insulators, xws li iav, tsis zoo conductors thaum txias, tab sis tseem zoo conductors thaum kub. Cov hlau feem ntau yog cov conductors zoo dua.. Lawv cia txias thiab phem conductors thaum kub. Qee cov conductors zoo tau pom nyob rau hauv superconductors ntawm qhov kub thiab txias heev.

Kuv vam tias nrog cov ntaub ntawv no koj tuaj yeem kawm paub ntau ntxiv txog cov khoom siv hluav taws xob thiab insulating.


Cov ntsiab lus ntawm tsab xov xwm ua raws li peb cov ntsiab cai ntawm kev tswj hwm kev ncaj nceesCov. Tshaj tawm ib qho yuam kev nyem no.

Yog thawj tus tuaj tawm tswv yim

Tso koj saib

Koj email chaw nyob yuav tsis tsum luam tawm.

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  1. Lub luag haujlwm rau cov ntaub ntawv: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Lub hom phiaj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Tswj SPAM, kev tswj xyuas tawm tswv yim.
  3. Sau raws cai: Koj kev tso cai
  4. Kev sib txuas lus ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Cov ntaub ntawv yuav tsis raug xa mus rau lwm tus neeg thib peb tsuas yog los ntawm kev txiav txim siab raug cai.
  5. Cov ntaub ntawv khaws cia: Cov Ntaub Ntawv khaws tseg los ntawm Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Txoj Cai: Txhua lub sijhawm koj tuaj yeem txwv, rov qab thiab tshem tawm koj cov ntaub ntawv.