Hluav taws xob hluav taws xob

nuclear fais fab nroj tsuag

Hauv thaj teb ntawm nuclear lub zog, Hluav taws xob hluav taws xobCov. Nws tseem paub los ntawm lub npe ntawm radioactivity. Nws yog qhov tshwm sim nthwv dej ntawm cov khoom tawg lossis hluav taws xob lossis ob qho tib lub sijhawm. Cov xaim thiab hluav taws xob no yog los ntawm kev tawg ntawm qee cov nuclides uas ua rau lawv. Lub hom phiaj ntawm lub zog nuclear yog ua kom tawg ntawm cov qauv hauv atoms los tsim lub zog los ntawm cov txheej txheem ntawm nuclear fission.

Hauv tsab xov xwm no peb yuav qhia koj txog dab tsi nuclear hluav taws xob yog, nws cov yam ntxwv thiab qhov tseem ceeb.

Lub ntsiab nta

nuclear qhov chaw txaus ntshai

Kev txhom neeg yog kev sib haum xeeb ntawm cov khoom tawg lossis hluav taws xob, lossis ob qho tib siCov. Cov xaim thiab hluav taws xob no yog los ntawm kev rhuav tshem ntawm qee yam nuclides uas ua rau lawv. Lawv sib cais vim kev teeb tsa ntawm sab hauv tsev.

Kev zom hluav taws xob tsis zoo tshwm sim hauv qhov tsis khov. Ntawd yog, cov uas tsis muaj lub zog khi txaus los tuav lub nuclei ua ke. Antoine-Henri Becquerel nrhiav tau hluav taws xob los ntawm kev sib tsoo. Tom qab ntawd, dhau los ntawm kev sim ua Becquerel, Madame Curie nrhiav lwm cov khoom siv xov tooj cua. Muaj ob hom nuclear hluav taws xob: kev tsim hluav taws xob thiab lub ntuj ua kom zoo.

Kev zom kua hluav taws xob yog kev zom zaws uas tshwm sim hauv ntuj vim yog cov xov ntawm lub ntuj raug pa thiab cov tib neeg tsis muaj keeb kwm. Nws ib txwm muaj nyob hauv ib puag ncig. Kev txhuam tawm ntawm ntuj kuj tseem tuaj yeem nce ntxiv hauv cov hauv qab no:

  • Qhov ua rau ntuj. Piv txwv li, hluav taws kub volcanic.
  • Indirect tib neeg ua. Piv txwv, khawb av hauv av txhawm rau txhim tsa lub hauv paus tsev lossis tsim lub zog nuclear.

Ntawm qhov tod tes, khoom neeg tsim hluav taws xob yog txhua cov hluav taws xob los yog hluav taws xob ionizing ntawm tib neeg keeb kwm. Qhov sib txawv ntawm hluav taws xob ntuj thiab cov neeg tsim hluav taws xob yog nws qhov. Qhov cuam tshuam ntawm ob hom hluav taws xob yeej zoo ib yam. Ib qho piv txwv ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob yog radioactivity tsim tawm hauv cov tshuaj nuclear lossis nuclear fission tshua hauv nuclear fais fab nroj tsuag kom tau txais hluav taws xob zoo.

Hauv ob qho xwm txheej, kev siv hluav taws xob ncaj qha hluav taws xob yog alpha hluav taws xob thiab beta tawg ua los ntawm cov hluav taws xob. Ntawm qhov tod tes, kev tiv thaiv ionizing hluav taws xob yog hluav taws xob hluav taws xob, zoo li gamma rays, uas yog photons. Thaum tib neeg tsim hluav taws xob, xws li cov khoom siv hluav taws xob, yog siv lossis pov tseg, cov pa paug hluav taws xob feem ntau tsim tawm.

Hom ntawm hluav taws xob hluav taws xob

Hluav taws xob hluav taws xob

Muaj peb hom nuclear hluav taws xob tau raug tso tawm: alpha, beta thiab gamma rays. Alpha hais yog cov uas muaj lub txim zoo, beta hais yog qhov tsis zoo, thiab gamma rays yog nruab nrab.

Nws tuaj yeem txiav txim siab hluav taws xob hluav taws xob rau gamma hluav taws xob thiab xoo hluav taws xob. Cov xaim hluav taws xob los ntawm alpha thiab beta hluav taws xob kuj tseem raug tso tawm. Txhua hom kev tso tawm muaj lub sijhawm sib txawv ntawm qhov nkag mus rau cov teeb meem thiab ionization lub zog. Peb paub tias hom hluav taws xob nuclear no tuaj yeem tsim kev puas tsuaj rau lub neej tau ntau yam. Peb yuav tau txheeb xyuas txhua qhov ntawm hluav taws xob nuclear uas muaj thiab nws qhov tshwm sim:

Alpha hais

Alpha (α) cov kua nyeem lossis alpha rays yog ib hom qauv uas muaj lub zog ua kom lub zog hluav taws xob ntau dhau mus. Nws muaj yuav luag tsis muaj peev xwm nkag mus rau cov ntaub so ntswg vim tias lawv coob. Lawv tau ua los ntawm ob lub protons thiab ob lub neutron, uas tau sib koom ua ke los ntawm cov neeg muaj zog.

Alpha rays, vim tias lawv them nqi hluav taws xob, cuam tshuam ntau yam nrog teeb meem. Lawv tau yooj yim nqus los ntawm cov khoom. Lawv tsuas tuaj yeem ya ob peb nti hauv huab cua. Lawv tuaj yeem nkag mus rau sab nraud ntawm tib neeg daim tawv nqaij, yog li lawv tsis muaj kev phom sij txog txoj sia vim tias lub hauv paus tau nqus los yog nqus tau. Hauv qhov xwm txheej no, txawm li cas los xij, kev puas tsuaj yuav loj dua qhov uas tshwm sim los ntawm lwm cov hluav taws xob ionizing. Ntawm kev txhaj tshuaj ntau, txhua qhov tsos mob tshwm sim ntawm hluav taws xob lom yuav tshwm sim.

Beta hais

Beta hluav taws xob yog ib hom kev tso hluav taws xob ionizing tawm los ntawm qee hom kev zom zaws hluav taws xob. Muab piv rau kev sib cuam tshuam ntawm alpha hais, kev sib cuam tshuam ntawm beta hais thiab cov teeb meem feem ntau muaj kaum zaus ntau dua thiab muaj peev xwm ionization sib npaug ntawm ib feem kaum. Lawv tag nrho sim ua los ntawm ob peb millimeters.

Gamma hais

Gamma rays yog hluav taws xob tsim hluav taws xob uas tsim los ntawm hluav taws xob. Lawv ruaj khov lub nucleus tsis hloov nws cov ntsiab lus proton. Lawv nkag mus tob dua than hluav taws xob, tab sis lawv muaj qib qis ntawm ionization.

Thaum muaj siab atomic nuits emits hluav taws xob gamma, nws qhov loj thiab atomic tus naj npawb yuav tsis hloov. Koj yuav tsuas poob qee qhov nqi ntawm lub zog. Gamma hluav taws xob tuaj yeem tsim kev puas tsuaj rau ntawm tes ntawm tes, uas yog vim li cas nws thiaj li siv rau khoom noj khoom haus thiab khoom siv kho mob.

Nuclear hluav taws xob hauv cov chaw fais fab

radioactivity

Ib lub chaw tsim hluav taws xob nuclear yog ib qho chaw tsim hluav taws xob uas siv hluav taws xob nuclear los tsim hluav taws xob. Nws yog ib feem ntawm tsev neeg ntawm cov hluav taws xob cua sov, uas txhais tau tias nws siv cua sov los ua hluav taws xob. Cov cua sov no los ntawm qhov tawg ntawm cov ntaub ntawv zoo li uranium thiab plutonium. Kev khiav dej num ntawm cov chav fais fab nuclear raws li kev siv cua sov los tsav lub tshuab raj los ntawm kev ua ntawm cov dej vapor, uas txuas nrog cov tshuab hluav taws xob. Lub nuclear fission reactor yog qhov chaw uas tuaj yeem pib ua, tswj thiab tswj fission saw nti, thiab muaj cov txhais tau tias tsim nyog kom tshem tawm cov cua sov tsim tawm. Yuav kom tau txais cov dej vapor, uranium lossis plutonium yog siv roj. Cov txheej txheem tuaj yeem yoog tau hauv tsib qib:

  • Qhov tawg ntawm uranium tshwm sim nyob rau hauv lub tshuab hluav taws xob nuclear, tso ntau lub zog los ua kom sov cov dej kom txog thaum nws yaj.
  • Chav xa tawm mus rau chav tsim kho lub tshuab hluav taws xob teeb los ntawm lub voj voos ua pa.
  • Muaj ib zaug, lub raj cua tshuab tig thiab txav lub tshuab hluav taws xob nyob hauv qab qhov haujlwm los ntawm chav, yog li hloov cov tshuab hluav taws xob rau hauv hluav taws xob lub zog.
  • Thaum cov dej ntws los ntawm lub cav nqus, nws xa mus rau tus condenser, qhov twg nws txias thiab hloov mus ua kua.
  • Tom qab, cov dej thauj mus los tau txais zog dua ntxiv, yog li kaw lub voj voog hauv dej.

Qhov uranium fission seem yog muab khaws cia sab hauv lub hoobkas, hauv cov pas dej tshwj xeeb ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob.

Kuv vam tias nrog cov ntaub ntawv no koj tuaj yeem kawm paub ntau ntxiv txog dab tsi nuclear hluav taws xob yog thiab nws cov yam ntxwv.


Cov ntsiab lus ntawm tsab xov xwm ua raws li peb cov ntsiab cai ntawm kev tswj hwm kev ncaj nceesCov. Tshaj tawm ib qho yuam kev nyem no.

Yog thawj tus tuaj tawm tswv yim

Tso koj saib

Koj email chaw nyob yuav tsis tsum luam tawm.

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  1. Lub luag haujlwm rau cov ntaub ntawv: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Lub hom phiaj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Tswj SPAM, kev tswj xyuas tawm tswv yim.
  3. Sau raws cai: Koj kev tso cai
  4. Kev sib txuas lus ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Cov ntaub ntawv yuav tsis raug xa mus rau lwm tus neeg thib peb tsuas yog los ntawm kev txiav txim siab raug cai.
  5. Cov ntaub ntawv khaws cia: Cov Ntaub Ntawv khaws tseg los ntawm Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Txoj Cai: Txhua lub sijhawm koj tuaj yeem txwv, rov qab thiab tshem tawm koj cov ntaub ntawv.