ʻO nā mea kanu ʻoi loa o ka honua

ʻO Hydropower mai nā mea kanu mana ke kumuwaiwai hou loa i ka honua. I kēia manawa ka ʻoi aku ka mana i hoʻonohonoho ʻia ma mua o 1.000 GW a ua hana ʻia ma 2014 i 1.437 TWh, kahi i helu ʻia no 14% o ka hana uila honua e like me ka ʻikepili mai ka International Energy Agency (IEA).

Hoʻohui ʻia, e like me nā wanana o ka ʻoihana like, e hoʻomau ka ulu ʻana o ka ikehu uila i kahi helu nui a hiki i ka pālua ʻana i kona mana o kēia manawa a ʻoi aku ma mua o 2.000 GW o ka mana i hoʻonoho ʻia ma 2050.

Ka mana Hydroelectric

He nui nā pono o ka Hydropower ma mua o nā kumu mana uila ʻē aʻe, me kahi pae kiʻekiʻe o ka hilinaʻi, ʻenehana i hōʻoiaʻiʻo ʻia a me ke kūlana kiʻekiʻe, nā haʻahaʻa hana a me nā koina mālama.

ʻO Hydropower ke kumu hou i hiki ke hoʻohou hou ʻia, ʻoiai he ʻekolu ia o ka makani, a me 350 GW, ka lua o nā kumu. ʻO nā hāʻawi o kēia ʻenehana i nā makahiki i hala aku nei ua hoʻonui i ka uila ma mua o ke koena o hoʻohui pū i ka ikehu. A nui loa ka hiki ke hoʻomohala o kēia ʻenehana, keu hoʻi ma ʻApelika, ʻAsia a me ʻAmelika Latina. Kuhi ka ʻaoʻao alanui IEA e pāpālua ʻia ka hiki i hoʻonohonoho ʻia ma ka honua a kokoke i 2.000 GW e 2050, me ka hana uila o ka honua ma mua o 7.000 TWh.

E ulu maʻamau ka ulu o ka hanauna hydroelectric nā papahana nui i nā ʻōnaehana e kū mai nei a e ulu ana. I kēia mau ʻāina, hiki i nā papahana uila nui a liʻiliʻi hoʻi ke hoʻomaikaʻi i ke komo ʻana i nā lawelawe ikehu uila, a hoʻemi i ka ʻilihune ma nā wahi he nui o ka honua, kahi i hiki ʻole ai ka uila a me ka wai inu.

ʻO ka ikehu Hydroelectric, i loaʻa ma o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka ikehu kinetic a me ka hiki o nā au a me nā wailele, ʻo ia kekahi o nā kumuwaiwai hou loa a hoʻohana ʻia e ka honua e loaʻa ka ikehu. ʻO Kina i kēia lā ka mea nui o ka ikehu uila ma ka honua, a ukali ʻia e Brazil, Kanada, ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa a me Rūsia, nā ʻāina i loaʻa nā mea kanu hydroelectric nui i ka honua.

A laila e ʻike ana mākou i ka 5 kiʻekiʻe o nā mea kanu hydroelectric

Kahi uila Hydroelectric o nā Gorges ʻEkolu

Hoʻokomo ʻia kēia mau mea kanu hydroelectric i kahi hiki i 22.500 MW. Aia ia ma Yichang, ka moku ʻo Hubei, a ʻo ia ka mea nui loa ma ka honua. ʻO ia kahi waihona wai hydroelectric maʻamau e hoʻohana i ka wai mai ka muliwai Yangtze.

ʻO ke kūkulu ʻana i ka papahana i koi ʻia i kahi hoʻopukapuka 18.000 miliona. Ua hoʻomaka kēia hana mega i ka makahiki 1993 a ua pau i ka makahiki 2012. Ua loaʻa ka dam i 181 mika kiʻekiʻe a me 2.335 mau mika i ka loa, ua lawe ʻia ma ke ʻano he ʻāpana o ka papahana ʻEkolu Gorges, i hoʻopili ʻia me ka wahi uila uila i haku ʻia me 32 mau mīkini uila o 700 MW pākahi, a ʻelua mau ʻāpana hana o 50 MW. I kēia manawa, ua hoʻonohonoho wale ka hana ikehu makahiki o ka mea kanu i ka moʻolelo honua ma 2014 me 98,8 TWh, i hiki ai iā ia ke hāʻawi i ka uila i ʻeiwa mau panalāʻau a me nā kūlanakauhale ʻelua, e like me Shanghai.

Mea kanu hydroelectric Itaipu

ʻO nā mea kanu hydroelectric o Itaipu, me ka mana i hoʻonohonoho ʻia o 14.000 MW, ʻo ia ka lua o ka nui ma ka honua. Aia ke keʻena ma ka muliwai Paraná, ma ka palena ma waena o Brazil a me Paraguay. ʻO ka hoʻopukapuka i hana ʻia i ke kūkulu ʻana i ka mea kanu he 15.000 miliona euro. Ua hoʻomaka nā hana i ka makahiki 1975 a ua pau i ka makahiki 1982. ʻO nā ʻenekini o ka consortium o IECO ma Amerika Huipuia a ʻElectroconsult ELC hoʻokumu ʻia ma ʻItalia, lawe ʻia i ke kūkulu ʻana, e hoʻomaka ana i ka hana mana mai ka mea kanu i Mei 1984.

Hāʻawi ka mea kanu ʻo Itaipu hydroelectric ma kahi o 17,3% o ka hoʻohana ikehu ma Brazil a me 72,5% o ka ikehu i hoʻopau ʻia ma Paraguay. ʻO kahi kikoʻī, loaʻa iā ia he 20 mau kikowaena hana me ka mana o 700 MW i kēlā me kēia.

Kukuna uila uila Xiluodu

kahua uila uila

Aia kēia wahi uila uila ma ke kahawai o ka muliwai ʻo Jinsha, kahi kahawai o ka muliwai Yangtze ma kāna papa kiʻekiʻe, aia ia ma ke kikowaena o ka moku ʻo Sichuan, ʻo ia ka lua o ka mana nui ma Kina a ʻo ke kolu ka nui loa ma ka honua. . ʻO ka hiki i hoʻonohonoho ʻia o ka mea kanu i hōʻea i 13.860 MW i ka pau ʻana o ka makahiki 2014 i ka wā i hoʻonoho ʻia ai nā ʻenekini ʻelua mau hope Ua hoʻomohala ʻia ka papahana e ka ʻEkolu Gorges Project Corporation a manaʻo ʻia e hana i ka 64 TWh o ka uila i kēlā me kēia makahiki ke holo pono.

Pono ka papahana i kahi hoʻopukapuka o 5.500 miliona miliona a ua hoʻomaka ka hana ʻana i ka makahiki 2005, e hoʻomaka ana i nā pōpō mua i Iulai Iulai 2013. Hoʻokomo ʻia ka mea kanu me kahi poho wai paʻa he 285,5 mika ke kiʻekiʻe a he 700 mika ka laulā, e hoʻokumu ana i kahi waihona wai me kahi hiki ke mālama ʻia he 12.670 miliona mau mika cubic. ʻO nā pono hana, hoʻolako ʻia e nā ʻenekini ʻo Voith, he 18 nā mīkini uila turbine me ka hiki o 770 MW pākahi a me kahi mīkini hoʻoliʻiliʻi me 855,6 MVA hoʻopuka.

Kahi uila uila Guri.

ʻO ka mea kanu ʻo Guri, ʻo ia hoʻi ʻo Simón Bolívar hydroelectric mea kanu, hoʻonohonoho ʻia ʻo ia kekahi o nā mea nui loa o ka honua, me kahi hoʻouka ʻia ka hiki o 10.235 MW. Aia nā pono i ka muliwai Caroní, aia ma ka hema hikina o Venezuela.

Ua hoʻomaka ka hana ʻana o ka papahana i ka makahiki 1963, e lawe ʻia ana i loko o ʻelua mau hanana, ua pau ka mea mua i ka makahiki 1978 a me ka lua i ka makahiki 1986. He 20 mau hua hoʻohui o ka mea kanu ma waena o 130 MW a me 770 MW. ʻO ka hui ʻO Alstom i wae ʻia ma o ʻelua mau aelike ma 2007 a me 2009 no ka hana hou ʻana o ʻehā 400 MW a me ʻelima mau 630 MW ʻāpana, a ua loaʻa pū ʻo Andritz i kahi ʻaelike e hāʻawi i ʻelima mau turbines ʻo 770MW Francis i ka makahiki 2007. Ma hope o ka hana hou ʻana i nā pono hanauna, ua loaʻa ka uila i ka mea kanu. lako hou ma mua o 12.900 GW / h.

Mea kanu wai uila ʻo Tucuruí

Aia kēia poho ma ka ʻaoʻao haʻahaʻa o ke kahawai ʻo Tocantins, ma Tucuruí, no ka Mokuʻāina ʻo Pará ma Brazil, hoʻonoho ʻia ʻo ia me ka elima nui o nā mea kanu hydroelectric i ka honua me kāna 8.370 MW. ʻO ka kūkulu papahana, i koi ʻia i kahi hoʻopukapuka o 4.000 miliona euro, ua hoʻomaka ʻia i ka makahiki 1975 a ua pau ka pae mua i ka makahiki 1984, ʻo ia hoʻi kahi pahu umekaumaha paʻa 78 mika kiʻekiʻe a me 12.500 mika ka lōʻihi, 12 hua hoʻohui me ka hiki o 330MW i kēlā me kēia. nā hui kōkua o 25 MW.

Ua hoʻohui ka ʻāpana ʻelua i kahi mana kanu hou i hoʻomaka ʻia i ka makahiki 1998 a hoʻopau ʻia ma ka hopena o ka makahiki 2010, kahi i hoʻokomo ʻia ai nā anakuna hanauna he 11 me ka hiki o 370 MW i kēlā me kēia mea. ʻO nā ʻenekini o kahi consortium i hoʻokumu ʻia e ʻO Alstom, GE Hydro, Inepar-Fem a me Odebrecht lako i ka

nā pono hana no kēia pae. I kēia manawa, hoʻolako ka mea kanu i ka uila i ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Belém a me nā wahi e pili ana.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.