ʻO ka ikehu uila o Sepania

Loaʻa ko mākou ʻāina i kahi mana uila, i hoʻomohala ʻia i ka wā ʻoi aʻe ma mua o nā makahiki 100. Mahalo i kēia, aia i kēia manawa aia he ʻōnaehana hanauna hydroelectric hanau nui.

Ma loko o nā ikehu hou i hoʻohana ʻia ma Sepania, ka ka mana hydroelectric ʻO ka ʻenehana hoʻohui ʻia a makua loa ia, mahalo i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka orography a me ke ola ʻana o nā dam he lehulehu.

Ka mana Hydroelectric

Aia he ʻelua typologies no ka hana hydroelectric: ʻo ka mua, nā mea kanu wai e hopu i kahi ʻāpana o ke kahe e kahe ana ma o ka muliwai a alakaʻi iā ia i ka mea kanu e lilo i ʻōpala a laila ia. hoʻi lākou i ka muliwai.

ʻO ka maʻamau, hoʻohana lākou i nā pae uila haʻahaʻa (ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o 5 MW) a me ka helu no 75% o ka mākeke. Hoʻopili lākou i ka "canal irrigation canal", e hoʻohana nei i ka wai kaulike ʻole i nā auwai wai e hana i ka uila.

ʻO nā mea kanu wāwae wawae nā mea, ma o ke kūkulu ʻia ʻana o kahi maku a i ʻole ka hoʻohana ʻana o kahi mea i kēia manawa, hiki ke hoʻoponopono i ke kahe. Loaʻa iā lākou nā pae o ʻoi aku ka mana ma mua o 5 MW a hōʻike lākou ma kahi o 20% o ka mākeke ma Sepania. I loko o kēia mau mea he pauma a hoʻohuli hou paha i nā mea kanu, nā mea kanu i, me ka hoʻoulu ʻana i ka ikehu (turbine mode), hiki ke hoʻoulu i ka wai i kahi waihona a i ʻole nā ​​waihona i ka ʻai ʻana i ka uila (mode pumping).

I ka hōʻuluʻulu, ma Sepania aia ka nui o ka waihona wai i 55.000 hm3, a nona ka 40% o ia hiki waihona wai hydroelectric, kekahi o nā koina kiʻekiʻe loa ma ʻEulopa a me ka honua.

Hoʻoiho

ʻO ka mōʻaukala, ke ulu nei ka ulu ʻana o ka ikehu uila ma Sepania, i nā makahiki i hala iho nei ua ʻike ia i kahi hōʻemi nui o kāna hāʻawi i ka huina uila hana, ʻoiai ua hoʻolauna ʻia nā ikehu hou i ka hoʻohuihui ikehu.

ʻOiai, ke hoʻomau nei nō ia e lilo i kekahi o nā mea hou hou loa me ka mana o ka makani. He mana hoʻouka ko Hydropower i ko mākou ʻāina he 17.792 MW, ʻo kēia ka 19,5% o ka huina, ʻoi aku ka mana i ʻoi aku i ka kinoea i hui pū ʻia nā pōʻaiapuni ʻo ia, me ka huina o 27.200 MW, ka ʻenehana mua e ka mana i hoʻonoho ʻia (24,8% o ka huina), ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ka ikehu o ka makani, he 23.002 MW ka mana (22,3%).

Ke kumu o ka ikehuola biofuel

I ka 2014, ka hāʻawi o ka ikehu uila i ka hana uila o ka ʻāina i hōʻike ʻia he 15,5%, me ka nui o 35.860 GWh, ua hōʻike ʻia kēia helu i kahi piʻi o 5,6% ma mua o ka makahiki i hala. ʻOiai ka maikaʻi hana hana wai uila, ʻo ia ka ʻenehana ʻehā i ka hana ʻana, ma hope o ka nukelea (22%), ka makani (20,3% 9 a me ka lanahu (16,5%).

I ka wā e hiki mai ana, manaʻo ʻia e hoʻomau ka ulu ʻana o kēia ʻenehana i ka awelika makahiki ma waena o 40 a 60 MW, mai ka hiki ke loaʻa o ka hydroelectric me ka hiki ke lilo hoʻokele waiwai, ʻoi aku ma mua o 1 GW.

ʻO Catalonia, Galicia a me Castilla y León nā kaiāulu kūʻokoʻa me nā mea kiʻekiʻe loa hoʻouka kau ʻia i ka lālā hydroelectric, ʻoiai lākou nā wahi me ka nui o ka waiwai o ka wai ma loko o Sepania

Hoʻonui ʻenehana

ʻO kēlā me kēia ʻanuʻu, ua alakaʻi ka hoʻomohala ʻenehana i ka ikehu mini-neaa me ka loaʻa o nā kumukūʻai hoʻokūkū ma waena o ka mākeke uila, ʻoiai ke ʻano o kēia mau mea e like me mea kanu typology a me ka hana e hoʻokō ʻia ai. Manaʻo ʻia kahi mea kanu uila mini-hydro inā loaʻa iā ia kahi i hoʻonohonoho ʻia ma lalo o 10 MW a hiki ke kahe i ka wai a i ʻole ka wai kū.

I kēia manawa, ke hoʻomohala ʻia nei nā microturbine hydraulic me nā mana ma lalo o kēlā 10 kW, pono kēia mau mea e hoʻohana i ka ikaika kinetic o nā kahawai a hana i ka uila i loko nā wahi kaʻawale. Hoʻopuka pololei ka turbine i ka uila i ka hoʻololi hou ʻana i kēia manawa a ʻaʻole koi ia i ka wai e hāʻule ana, nā pono hana hou a i ʻole nā ​​koina mālama kiʻekiʻe.

I kēia lā, kuhi ʻia ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka ʻāpana hydroelectric Sepania i ka hoʻokō ʻana i ka ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi, i mea e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka hana o nā pono o kēia manawa. Kuhikuhi ʻia nā noi i ka hoʻoponopono hou, hana hou i kēia manawa, hoʻomaikaʻi a i ʻole ka hoʻonui ʻana o nā mea kanu i hoʻonohonoho mua ʻia.

I kēia manawa aia ma Sepania he 800 mau mea kanu hydroelectric, me kahi ʻano o ka nui. Aia he 20 mau mea kanu ma mua o 200 MW, kahi e hōʻike pū ai i 50% o ka nui o ka mana uila. Ma nā mea ʻē aʻe, aia nō he mau kakini liʻiliʻi me nā mana ma lalo o 20 MW, i hoʻolaha ʻia ma Sepania.

Presa


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

*

*

  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.