Nā ikehu hou i Sepania

Nā ikehu hou i Sepania

Ke hāʻawi nei nā ikehu hou i Sepania, ma kahi o ka manawa, nā piʻi a me nā lalo i ka ʻai a me ka hana. I kēia manawa, ʻaʻole i hiki i ka ikehu nukelea, hoʻohui i nā mea kanu pōʻai, a me ke koʻa a me ke kinoea i makemake nui ʻia ke hana i ka ikehu e like me nā mea hou i ka makahiki i hala. Wahi a ka Spanish Electricity Network, nā kumu ikehu hou i hoʻokumu ʻia ma 2017 i hoʻokumu ʻia he 33,7% o ka ikehu i pau.

I kēia pou hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i ka panorama o nā ikehu hou i Sepania, mai ka hana a lākou e hoʻohana nui ai. Makemake ʻoe e ʻike i nā mea āpau e pili ana?

ʻO nā ikehu hou hou loa ma Sepania

Pāka lā

ʻOiai ʻo ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka ikehu hou i hāʻawi i kahi huki maikaʻi i ka Iberian Peninsula, 17,4% o ka ikehu i hoʻopau ʻia ma muli o nā mea kanu uila wela. Hoʻokahi o kēlā me kēia ʻekolu kilowatt hola i hana ʻia ma Sepania i hana kūʻokoʻa a hoʻomaʻemaʻe. Ma waena o nā ikehu i hoʻohana ʻia ʻike mākou i ka lā, ka makani, ka wai a me ka biomass.

ʻOiai e hoʻohana ʻia ka wai, ka lā a me ka makani e hoʻohua i ka ikehu ma kahi nui, ua hoʻohana ʻia ka biomass e hoʻomehana i nā hale i ka hoʻoilo. Mahalo i kēia kumu hou hiki ke hānai ʻia kapuahi pellet.

ʻO nā ikehu launa a me kā lākou koina kiʻekiʻe

ʻOihana ʻaila

Hoʻokumu ʻia ke koena o nā hola kilowatt i loko o ke kinoea kūlohelohe, lanahu a i ʻole nā ​​mea kanu nukelea. ʻAʻole ʻōiwi kēia mau ikehu mai, no ka laʻana, ma kahi o 50% o ka uranium nui i Namibia a i ʻole Nigera. Mai laila mākou e loaʻa ai ka wahie no kā mākou mau mea kanu nukelea. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, mai Qatar a i ʻole Algeria lawe mākou i ka hapalua o ke kinoea maoli a mākou e hoʻohana ai. ʻO ka mea hope loa, mai Libia, Nigeria a me ka Hikina Waena lawe mākou i nā aila he nui.

ʻO kēia kumu o ka ikehu i waho o ka loaʻa ʻole o ka loaʻa kālā i Sepania, akā noho mau i waho. Ke hana nei ka hoʻokele waiwai Sepania inā holo ke kālā i loko o ka ʻāina. ʻO ia, inā mākou e lawe i waho o nā mea i lawe ʻia mai a i ʻole e loaʻa hou nā mākaʻikaʻi e hoʻolilo i kā lākou kālā ma aneʻi. Loaʻa ke kumukūʻai i nā mea lawe mai a pau: 33 miliona mau kālā i hoʻolilo ʻia i ka ʻaila, ka ʻaila a me ka lānahu. Lilo kēia kālā mai ka waihona kālā o Sepania a hele i nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe.

Ke kū nei i kēia kūlana, hilinaʻi nui ʻo Sepania i nā kumukūʻai i hoʻonohonoho ʻia e nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe no ka ʻaila kūlohelohe a i ʻole ka aila. Aia kēia hilinaʻi ikehu ma luna o ka awelika ʻEulopa. Kakaikahi nā ʻāina kūʻokoʻa i ka ikehu, akā hilinaʻi nui ʻo Sepania i ka ikehu o waho. Hōʻike ʻia mākou i ka makemake o nā lāhui ʻē aʻe e kūʻai aku iā mākou i ka ikehu a i kēlā mākeke "dictatorship".

ʻO ka pilikia o ka hilinaʻi o ka ikehu ke hele nei i ka maikaʻi a i ʻole ka maikaʻi. Wahi a ka nūhou hou a Cores (Corporation no Strategic Resares of Petroleum Products, Ministry of Energy), ma waena o Ianuali a me ʻOkakopa 2017, ua ulu nā lawe mai o nā huahana ikehu e 18,0% ma aneʻi. I loko nō o kēia, ua hoʻonui ka hapa nui o ka ikehu e 30,4%, a he 17 miliona Euro. Loaʻa iā mākou kahi deficit ʻoi aku ka nui o ka ikehu, ke hiki iā mākou ke loaʻa i ka honua i nā mea hou.

He aha ka hana a Sepania me ka ikehu?

ʻO nā wahie ʻaila a me nā mōʻalihaku

Me ka ikehu āu e kūʻai ai, hana ia i ke anuanu a me ka wela i nā hana ʻoihana. Mālama pū lākou i nā home a me nā keʻena air-condition. Pono e noʻonoʻo ʻia e hoʻohana ʻia ka aila e hānai i nā ʻauwaʻa holo kaʻa holo holo holo (ʻoi aku ma mua o 27 miliona mau kaʻa ʻāina a me nā kaʻa ea a me nā kai). Hoʻohana ʻia ia e hana i ka uila. I ka hana ikehu aia mākou i ke koena a kokoke i hoʻokahi makahiki, ke maikaʻi ke kaulike ma waena o nā mea hoʻolilo a me nā lawe mai.

Ma hope o ʻumikūmākolu mau makahiki o nā kaulike maikaʻi, me nā makahiki ʻelima a me ke kū ʻana o nā mea hou i ka lima o ke aupuni Rajoy, ma 2016 ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka ikehu ma Sepania. Ua hoʻokūpaʻa ʻia ka maʻa i ka 2017, i ka wā i lawe mai ai mākou i 20% ʻoi aku ka ikaika ma mua o 2016. ʻOiai ʻo Farani a me Pokukala hoʻi i ke kaulike maikaʻi ʻole, he kānāwai ikaika ka hoʻohana ponoʻī i ka mākeke.

Nā manawa kūpono hou

Hale mahiʻai makani ma Lleida

Ma Sepania ka nui o nā koina pāhawewe ma Europe holoʻokoʻa. Hoʻohui ʻia, loaʻa iā mākou ka mākaʻikaʻi kiʻekiʻe loa o ka poʻe mākaʻikaʻi i ka mōʻaukala a ua ola mākou i nā mahina o ʻAukake me nā mahana o 45 kekelē. ʻOiai kēia, hoʻomau ka hoʻonui ʻana o kā mākou hilinaʻi ikehu i ka nui a me ka nui. Nui mākou i nā kumuwaiwai ma Sepania a me ka puka aniani o nā manawa kūpono. Hoʻohana ʻia ka ea i nā hola piko e ka lā. Hiki i ka lā ke kala aku ʻole a luhi hoʻi ma ke ʻano he manawaleʻa i ka ikehu. Akā ʻaʻole pēlā. Ua pōmaikaʻi nā mea kūʻai kūwaho mai kēia mau piko o ka ikehu, ka hapa nui o nā kinoea kūlohelohe.

ʻOiai nā hanana ikaika a mākou e noho nei i kēlā me kēia lā ma Sepania, ʻo ka pāka i hoʻouka hou ʻia i hiki ai iā mākou ke loaʻa he 1 i 3 kilowatts o ka ikehu maʻemaʻe. He hopena kēia e noʻonoʻo ana i nā kūlana ikaika a mākou e hele nei. ʻAʻohe mea hou aʻe a ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o 33,7% o ka ikehu āpau e hana ʻia e nā kumu haumia ʻole a me nā kumu ʻōiwi.

Hoʻohui ikehu Sepania

Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻehiku mau reactors nukelea e hana nei ke kuleana no ka hana ʻana i 22,6% o nā kilowatts. ʻO kēia ke kumu o nā mea i lawe ʻia mai Namibia i lawe i ka ʻāpana ʻelua o ka hana. Ua hana ka Gas i mea ʻoi aku a i ʻole mea like paha, inā mākou e hoʻohui i ka pōʻai hoʻohui, 13,8%, a me nā helu 11,5 o cogeneration. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā cogeneration i Sepania hana me ka gas. Ua hana wale ʻo Coal i ka 17,4% o nā hola kilowatt.

E like me ka mea i ʻike ʻia i loko o ka hoʻohuihui ikehu Sepania, ʻoiai ʻo ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ua kū ka hana hou i kahi manawa hou mai ke aupuni ʻo Rajoy, ua ʻoi aku lākou i nā mea ʻē aʻe. ʻO nā ikehu hou i Sepania e alakaʻi i ka ʻāina i ka hoʻololi o ka ikehu ma muli o ka wikiwiki a ma hope paha, e lilo nā kumu lāʻau fossil i kumu kūʻai nui ma muli o kā lākou pau ʻana. Lana ka manaʻo e hana pū ke aupuni me ia. He mea hilahila ia e hoʻonele ʻia ka nui o ka ikehu, ʻoiai me ka loaʻa o ka hiki.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.