Nā ʻano mea kanu mana

nā mea kanu hydroelectric

ʻO ka uila he mea kūlohelohe ia e hiki ke hana ma nā ʻano like ʻole ma o nā mea kanu mana. ʻAʻole maʻalahi ka nīnau o ke kumu o ka uila: e hoʻohana ʻia e like me ka ikehu, pono e hele i kahi ala lōʻihi. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻo kā lākou hana hana a me ka pae kūpono, ʻo ia hoʻi, ka nui o ka uila e hiki ai iā lākou ke hana mai ka hoʻololi ʻana o ka ikehu mua, e hilinaʻi ʻia i nā mea maka a me ka ʻenehana i hoʻohana ʻia. ʻO kēia ke kumu e hilinaʻi ai nā mea kanu mana i ka ikehu. Ma Sepania, ka mea nui nā ʻano mea kanu mana He thermal, nukelea, atmospheric a me solar photovoltaic.

Ma kēia ʻatikala e haʻi mākou iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau e pono ai ʻoe e ʻike e pili ana i nā ʻano mea kanu mana e noho nei a me ko lākou ʻano.

Nā ʻano mea kanu mana

nā ʻano mea kanu mana

Mea mana wela

Hoʻomaka ka neʻe ʻana o nā turbines o kēia mau mea kanu ma muli o nā pahu mahu i loaʻa mai ma ka hoʻomehana ʻana i ka wai. Hoʻopuka nā mea mana wela i ka uila ma nā ʻano like ʻole: ma waena o lākou ka wela

  • Kaulana: Loaʻa iā lākou ko lākou ikehu mai ka puhi ʻana i nā wahie mōʻalihaku.
  • Mai ka biomass: Loaʻa iā lākou ko lākou ikehu mai ke ahi ʻana i nā ululāʻau, nā koena mahiʻai a i ʻole nā ​​mea kanu ikehu kaulana.
  • Mai ka ʻōpala ʻōpala paʻa o ke kūlanakauhale: Loaʻa iā lākou ka ikehu ma ke puhi ʻana i ka ʻōpala i mālama ʻia.
  • nā mea kanu nuklea: Hoʻoulu lākou i ka ikehu ma o ka hopena fission o nā uranium atoms. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, hoʻomaʻamaʻa nā mea hoʻomehana wai o ka lā i ka wai ma ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i ka ikehu o ka lā, a ʻo ka hopena, hoʻohana nā mea kanu geothermal i ka wela mai loko mai o ka honua.

mea mana makani

Ke hana nei ka makani ma luna o nā lau huila makani, neʻe kāu turbine. No ka hana ʻana i kēia, hoʻokomo ʻia kahi rotor me nā ʻāpana he nui ma ka ʻaoʻao o luna o ka hale kiaʻi, kahi i kuhikuhi ʻia i ka makani. Kaʻapuni lākou a puni i kahi axis horizontal e hana ana ma ka generator. ʻO kāna hana i kaupalena ʻia e ka wikiwiki o ka makani, a makemake nā māla makani i nā wahi ʻāina nui. Ma Sepania, ma kekahi ʻaoʻao, nā hola hana o ka hana uila ma waena o 20% a me 30% o ka makahiki, kahi waiwai haʻahaʻa i hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā mea kanu wela a me ka nuklea, a hiki i 93%.

Eia nō naʻe, pono e hoʻomanaʻo ʻia he kumu ikehu maʻemaʻe a ʻaʻole hoʻopilikia kēia mau mea hoʻonohonoho i ke kaiapuni. ʻO ka mahiʻai makani i hoʻokomo ʻia ma ke awa o Bilbao ma Ponta Lucero i hoʻopuka i ka 7,1 miliona kWh o ka ikehu makani ma Sepania i kāna mau mahina ʻelima mua o ka hana. ʻOi aku ka maikaʻi o kēia mau paka ke kūkulu ʻia e ke kai, no ka mea, e kaapuni ana ka ea i ka poha a ua oi aku ka paa ma mua o ka aina.

hale mana o ka lā

pāka lā

Aia nā ʻano like ʻole o kēia mau mea mana. Ma waena o lākou, hoʻohana nā mea kanu wela o ka lā i ka wela o ka lā e hoʻomehana i ka wai a hoʻohana i ka mahu i hana ʻia e ka hoʻomehana e hoʻoneʻe i nā turbines. Aia kekahi mau mea kanu photovoltaic solar, mai ʻO nā pūnaewele Photovoltaic ke kuleana no ka hoʻololiʻana i ka ikehu o ka lā i uila.. Ma Sepania, loaʻa iā mākou ʻelua mau hale hana nui: ʻo Puertollano a me Olmedilla de Alarcón photovoltaic paka. Aia lāua ʻelua ma Castilla-La Mancha.

hale mana wai

Hoʻokele ʻia nā turbines o kēia mau mea kanu e ke kahe wai wikiwiki. Hoʻohana kēia mau mea i nā wailele, inā he kūlohelohe, ʻo ia hoʻi, nā wailele ʻole a me nā muliwai, a i ʻole nā ​​wailele kūlohelohe i hoʻohui ʻia i loko o nā loko. Ma waho aʻe o ka ikehu uila hiki iā lākou ke hana, ua māhele ʻia a hoʻokaʻawale ʻia paha e like me ka mana i loaʻa iā lākou. Ma kekahi ʻaoʻao nā mea kanu hydroelectric nui, nā mea kanu wai liʻiliʻi a me nā mea kanu micro hydroelectric.

hale mana kai

He like kona hana me na mea kanu hydroelectric. Akā, hoʻohana kēia mau mea i ka ʻokoʻa o ka ʻilikai ma waena o ke kai kiʻekiʻe a me ke kai haʻahaʻa. Manaʻo ʻia nā mea kanu mana kai e hoʻohana pono i ka neʻe ʻana o nā nalu e neʻe i nā turbines. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, aia nō nā au kai e hoʻohana pono ai ka ikehu kinetic o ke au moana a i ʻole ke kai. He liʻiliʻi ka hopena o ke kaiapuni o kēia ala no ka mea ʻaʻole i kūkulu ʻia nā pā wai e hoʻopilikia i ke kaiaola.

Pehea e hana ai nā ʻano mea kanu mana

ʻO ka mana wela ka mana wela nona ka pahuhopu e hoʻololi i ka ikehu wela i uila. Hana ʻia kēia hoʻololi ʻana e ka pōʻaiapuni o ka turbine mahu/wai wela. ʻO ia ka pōʻaiapuni Rankine. I kēia hihia, e hoʻopuka ke kumu mahu i ka mahu e hoʻokele i ka turbine.

ʻO kekahi ʻano o ka mana wela ka pōʻai hui. I loko o kahi mea kanu hui pū ʻia he ʻelua pōʻaiapuni thermodynamic:

  • pōʻai Breton. Hoʻohana kēia pōʻaiapuni me ka turbine kinoea hoʻopau, maʻamau maʻamau.
  • pōʻaiapuni Rankine. ʻO kēia ka pōʻaiapuni ʻo ka pahu wai mahu-wai maʻamau.

I loko o nā mea mana wela a pau, pono ʻekolu mau mea no ka hoʻoulu ʻana i ka uila:

  • he huipu mahu. Hoʻololi nā turbines i ka ikehu wela i ikehu kinetic.
  • He alternator e hoohuli ana ikehu mechanical i ka ikehu uila.
  • Transformer e hoʻololi i ke au i loaʻa i ke au ʻokoʻa me ka ʻokoʻa hiki ke makemake ʻia.

ʻO ke koʻikoʻi o kahi reactor nuklea

nā ʻano mea kanu mana ma Sepania

ʻO ka fusion reactor kahi hale kahi e hoʻoneʻe ʻia ai nā hopena nuklea i loko o ka wahie i hana ʻia me nā isotopes hydrogen (deuterium a me tritium), e hoʻokuʻu ana i ka ikehu ma ke ʻano o ka wela, ka mea. a laila, lilo ia i uila.

I kēia manawa, ʻaʻohe mea hoʻoheheʻe fusion e hiki ke ʻohi i ka uila, ʻoiai aia nā keʻena noiʻi e aʻo ai i nā hopena fusion a me ka ʻenehana e hoʻohana ʻia i kēia mau mea kanu i ka wā e hiki mai ana.

I ka wā e hiki mai ana, e māhele ʻia nā reactors fusion i ʻelua ʻano: nā mea hoʻohana i ka hoʻopaʻa magnetic a me nā mea hoʻohana i ka hoʻopaʻa inertial. ʻO kahi reactor fusion confinement magnetic kekahi mau ʻāpana:

  • He keʻena hopena i hoʻopaʻa ʻia e ka pā metala.
  • Ke manaʻo nei ʻo ka wahie i loko o ke keʻena pane he deuterium-tritium, kahi papa o nā mea i hana ʻia me ka lithium e huki ana i ka wela mai nā paia metala a hana i ka tritium.
  • Hoʻopuka kekahi mau wili nui i nā māla magnetic.
  • He ʻano pale radiation.

ʻO ka inertial confinement fusion reactor e komo pū me:

  • keena pane, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o ka mea ma mua, ua kaupalena ʻia e nā paia metala.
  • Ka uhi Lithium.
  • Hoʻohana ʻia no hoʻomaʻamaʻa i ke komo ʻana o nā ʻāpana kukui kukui aiʻole nā ​​ion mai kahi laser.
  • Radioprotection.

Manaʻo wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou e pili ana i nā ʻano mea kanu mana e noho nei a me ko lākou mau ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.