ʻO nā waihona wai nui o Sepania

Presa Ma mua ua kamaʻilio mākou e pili ana i ka ikehu uila ma Sepania, a pehea hoʻohuli manaʻo i kā mākou «hoʻohuihui ikehu», hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i ka ʻatikala ma ke kaomi ʻana NO KA.

I kēia ʻatikala e kamaʻilio ana mākou nā waihona wai nui loa o ka ʻāina, hoʻomaka me ke kikowaena Aldeadávila, a hoʻopau me Entany Gento.

ʻO nā mea kanu ʻo Aldeadávila hydroelectric

ʻO ka wai wai ʻo Aldeadávila a me nā waihona wai, i ʻike ʻia ʻo ka wailele ʻo Aldeadávila. He hana pharaonic ia i kūkulu ʻia ma ka muliwai ʻo Douro, 7 km mai ke kaona o Aldeadavila de la Ribera, aia i loko o ka panalāʻau o Salamanca (Castilla y León) a lilo i hoʻokahi o nā hana ʻenehana hydroelectric koʻikoʻi nui ma Sepania e pili ana i ka mana i hoʻonoho ʻia a me ka hana uila.

ʻO Aldeadávila, i mālama ʻia e Iberdrola, he ʻelua mau mea kanu hydroelectric. ʻO Aldeadávila I, i hoʻomaka i ka makahiki 1962 a me Aldeadávila II, i hoʻomaka ʻia i ka makahiki 1986. ʻO 810 MW ka mea mua i hoʻonohonoho ʻia a ʻo ka lua he 433 MW, a huina o aneane 1.243 MW. ʻO kāna hana maʻamau he 2.400 GWh i kēlā me kēia makahiki.

ʻO José María de Oriol, Alcántara

Ma Extremadura, loaʻa iā Iberdrola kekahi o kāna mau mea kanu hydroelectric nui, ʻo José María de Oriol, i kapa ʻia ʻo Alcántara, a he 916 megawatts (MW) ka mea i hoʻonohonoho ʻia. Loaʻa kona mana palua ka mana uila Hāʻawi ka ʻoihana i kēia kaiāulu kūʻokoʻa i nā manawa o ka ʻai nui loa.

Aia ia ma ke kaona ʻo Caceres o Alcántara, he ʻehā mau hui hydroelectric o 229 MW o ka mana i komo i waena o 1969 a me 1970. ʻO ka ʻāpana kaumaha loa o ke kau ʻana ʻo ia ka rotor o kēlā me kēia mīkini hana me ke kaupaona o 600 tone.

ʻO ka waihona waenakonu ka lua o ka nui ma Sepania a ʻo ka hā ma ʻEulopa. Loaʻa i kēia ka nui o 3.162 cubic hectometres (Hm3) a me ka dam 130 mika kiʻekiʻe, 570 mau mika o ka lōʻihi o ke kaha a me nā puka kīwaha he 7 me ka mana hiki ke hoʻokuʻu ʻia o 12.500 m3 / s e hana ana ma ke ʻano he ʻauwaha ke pono.

ʻO Villarino Central

I ka papa o ka muliwai Tormes ʻike mākou i ka waihona wai a me ka Pāpā Almond. Aia ia ma 5 km mai ke kaona ʻo Salamanca ʻo Almendra a me 7 km mai ke kaona Zamora o Cibanal, ma Castilla y León. He ʻāpana ia o ka ʻōnaehana ʻo Saltos del Duero me nā ʻōnaehana i hoʻonohonoho ʻia ma Aldeadávila, Castro, Ricobayo, Saucelle a me Villalcampo.

Kupanaha loa ka mea kanu hydroelectric a hoʻoneoneo i nā kaha nui o ke akamai. I ka hihia o Almendra-Villarino, ʻaʻole i loaʻa nā pōpō ma ke kumu o ka dam, kahi e hiki ai ke kiʻekiʻe o 202 m; Akā, loaʻa kahi wai i aneane ma ka pae haʻahaʻa a holo kēia i loko o kahi ana i eli ʻia i ka pōhaku o 7,5 m ke anawaena a 15.000 m ka lōʻihi e hoʻopau ana i ka wai i loko o ke kahawai ʻo Aldeadávila, ma ka muliwai Duero. Me kēia, hiki ke kiʻi i kahi kiʻekiʻe o 410 m, me kahi waihona o 8.650 ha wale. Hoʻohui ʻia, hiki ke hoʻohuli ʻia nā pūʻulu turbine-alternator a hiki ke hana ma ke ʻano he motika.

ʻO ka mana i hoʻonoho ʻia o nā mea kanu hydroelectric he 857 MW a he a hana maʻamau 1.376 GWh i kēlā me kēia makahiki.

Central Cortes-La Muela. 

ʻO ka Iberdrola hydroelectric plant aia ma Cortes de Pallás (Valencia) ka ke kahua paipu nui loa ma ʻEulopa o ʻEulopa . Aia ia ma ka muliwai ʻo Júcar, a mahalo i ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ʻehā mau hui i hoʻohuli ʻia i hoʻonoho ʻia i loko o ke ana e hoʻohana pono ai i ke kulu 500 mika ma waena o ke kahawai ʻo La Muela a me ka waihona wai ʻo Cortes de Pallás, ua hoʻonui ka mea kanu i kona 630 MW o ka mana a hiki i 1.750 MW i loko o ka pōpō a 1.280 MW i ka pauma ʻana.

Hiki i ka mea kanu ke hana i 1.625 GWh a hui i ka koi makahiki o kahi o 400.000 mau hale

Saucelle waena

ʻO ka waihona wai, ke kikowaena uila a me ka dam Saucelle, i ʻike ʻia ʻo ka wailele ʻo Saucelle, kahi hana a ʻenehana ʻenekini uila kūkulu ʻia i ka waena waena o ka muliwai Duero. Aia ia ma 8 km mai ke kaona ʻo Saucelle, ma ka moku ʻo Salamanca. ʻO ka ʻāpana kahi i waiho ʻia ai ʻike ʻia ʻo Arribe del Duero, kahi kaumaha hohonu o ka ʻāina i hoʻokumu i ka palena ma waena o Sepania a me Pokukala.

He ʻāpana ia o ka ʻōnaehana ʻo Saltos del Duero me nā ʻōnaehana i hoʻonohonoho ʻia ma Aldeadávila, Almendra, Castro, Ricobayo a me Villalcampo. Loaʻa iā Saucelle nā ​​mea kanu hydroelectric ʻelua. Kūkulu ʻia ʻo Saucelle I ma waena o 1950 a me 1956, ka makahiki i hoʻomaka ai ka hana, a he mana nona ka 251 megawatts a 4 uila uila. Ua hoʻomaka ʻo Saucelle II i ka hana ma 1989 a he 2 mau mīkini uila Francis a me kahi hiki i hoʻouka ʻia he 269 MW, no ka huina o 520 MW.

ʻO Estany-Gento Sallente

ʻO ka Estany-Gento Sallente mea kanu ʻano ʻē aʻe a ua hoʻomaka ʻia i ka hana i ka makahiki 1985. Kūkulu ʻia ka mea kanu ma ke kahawai o Flamisell i kona hele ʻana i loko o ke kaona ʻo La Torre de Cabdella. Loaʻa iā ia ka mana o 468 MW a, e like me ka aneane o nā mea kanu Endesa, hoʻolako ʻia me 4 turbines Francis. He 400,7 mau mika ka lōʻihi o ka wailele.

Kūkulu ka mea kanu ma waena o ʻelua loko (Estany Gento, ma 2.140 mau mika o ke kiʻekiʻe; a ʻo Sallente, ma 1.765 mau mika), hana i hoʻihoʻi piha: i nā manawa kiʻekiʻe (me ka koi nui loa) hana ia ka uila ma o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka wailele mai aneane ʻehā haneli mau mika o ka loaʻa kiʻekiʻe. I nā hola awāwa (ka palena iki o ka ʻai ʻana) pume nā kūpale hoʻokahi i ka wai mai ka loko o lalo a hiki i luna, e mālama nei i kahi ikehu kūpono no nā manawa o ka noi nui.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.