ʻO Hydropower ma ʻEulopa

Europe ʻo ia ka ʻāpana o ka honua me ka ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hana o ka hanauna hydroelectric, e like me ka hōʻike hou loa o nā helu i loaʻa mai ka ʻAhahui Hydropower International. Wahi a ka hōʻike e pili ana ka EU ma kahi o 260 GW o ka huina o 860-950 GW o ka hanauna hydroelectric.

Kūleʻa nui nā wahi ʻē aʻe i ka hōʻike, me ʻEulopa Hikina. Ua nānā nui ʻia i kēia māhele, ka mea e hoʻomohala wikiwiki nei i kāna kumuwaiwai a manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia ka honua me ka pae kiʻekiʻe o ka hoʻoili ʻana i nā makahiki ʻekolu e hiki mai ana. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻo Kina, ka mea e alakaʻi i Asia Hikina i ka hoʻomohala hydrolectric, ʻoi aku ma mua o ka US ma ke ʻano he ʻāina me ka mea nui i hoʻokau ʻia. Ke ulu wikiwiki nei ʻo ʻAmelika Hema. Hoʻohui ʻia, kuhi ʻo IHA aia kekahi 127 a 150 GW hiki hōʻuluʻulu pauma ʻia i ka honua, a ke manaʻo ʻia nei ka mākeke hōʻiliʻili i hoʻohū ʻia ʻia e e hoʻonui ʻia e 60% no nā makahiki ʻelima e hiki mai ana.

Ma ka laulaha, ulu akahai nā mea kanu nui uila i nā pākēneka ʻōlelo i ka makahiki 2009, e like me ka mea hou loa Hoike REN-21 o ke kūlana honua o ka ikehu hou. Kahi mea nui kēia hoʻonui 3% ma muli o ke kūlana makua o ka hydroelectric a me ke kumu nui. ʻOiai ua hāʻule nā ​​kauoha uila hydroelectric i ka makahiki 2009 a me 2010 mai ka makahiki 2008, ua piʻi aʻe nā kauoha mua no ka makahiki 2011 i nā manaʻo wahie e ʻoi aku ka nui o nā kauoha no nā makahiki 2010 ma mua o nā makahiki 2000.

Eia nō naʻe, hōʻike ka hōʻike REN-21 i ka 31 GW o ke kaha uila i hoʻohui ʻia i ka makahiki 2009, ua hoʻonui ʻia ka nui o nā pono o nā ʻāpana ikehu hou, lua wale i ka mana makani. Hoʻohui ʻia, ma ka US 40-45 biliona kālā i hoʻopukapuka ʻia i loko o nā mea kanu nui hydroelectric i loko o ka makahiki.

I nā mākeke ulu, e like me ʻEulopa, kahi o nā mea kanu hydroelectric he 30 a 40 paha mau makahiki, ua kia nui ka hana i ka hana hou o nā laikini a me ka repowering ʻana, a me ka hoʻohui o ka hanauna i nā waikahe e kū nei, pau ka hōʻike. Kākoʻo ʻia kēia ʻano e ka hana mākeke i ʻike ʻia ma 2009 a me 2010, a e like me ka hōʻike ʻana o kēia hōʻike, lilo nā mākeke he mau wahi wela kūloko.

Puna: ren 21


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

2 manaʻo, waiho i kāu

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.

  1.   ʻO Cristòbal Del cid ia

    No ka mea inā loaʻa iā mākou nā kumuwaiwai ʻē aʻe, ʻaʻole hoʻohana ʻia ia a no ka noʻonoʻo ʻole o nā panakō kālā e pili ana i kēia mau koho ʻē aʻe, ke hoʻomohala nei ʻo Panama i nā papahana kahi e hoʻomaʻemaʻe ai nā ululāʻau a hoʻolei ʻia a kanu ʻia hoʻi nā meaola āpau, ʻo ia, ʻaʻohe kumu me nā mea āpau. kēia mea he mau kaukani o nā tona (i kēia lā aia nā ʻenehana e ʻae iā mākou e hoʻohana i kēia) akā aia he Ministry of the environment mākou. Pono mākou e loaʻa i nā papahana no nā contingencies (waikahe, ahi) nā papahana no ka mahiʻai (mea hoʻomomona) i ka pōkole, manaʻo wau hoʻohana wale mākou i ke ala maʻalahi loa.

  2.   Kleber ia

    ʻO Panama, kahi ʻāina liʻiliʻi i ka hoʻonui ʻāina a nui i ka hoʻokele waiwai a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana me kekahi mau hiki o ka ikehu uila, aia paha ia he mea maikaʻi ʻole ma kēia mea ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā ʻāina kokoke o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, akā manaʻo wau aia ka hopena ma kā lākou manamana lima. ʻaʻole pono e kūkulu i nā pono hana e hana i ka ikehu uila, me ka noʻonoʻo iki a me ka nānā ʻana i ka wā e hiki mai ana me ka hoʻoholo, hiki iā lākou ke lawe mai i ka ikehu uila mai Ecuador ma o Colombia ʻoiai ua maopopo iaʻu aia kahi pilina ma waena o Panama a me Colombia a ma waena o ʻEkuador a me Colombia me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā pūnaewele uila ʻO Colombian -Ecuadorian ka mana uila e kahe mālie i Panama a no laila e loaʻa iā Panama ka palekana o ka lawa o ka mana uila no nā makahiki he nui, kuhi wau me kahi ʻike pono maikaʻi, hiki ke hāʻawi ʻia ka mana uila i nā Central America āpau: ʻoluʻolu a haumia ʻole e kōkua ana i ka honua a i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o nā ʻāina ʻAmelika Waena.