He aha ka ikehu uila

hydraulics i Sepania

Nui a hewahewa nā ʻano o ka ikehu hou i ka honua a he hana ʻokoʻa kā kēlā me kēia. ʻO ka pahuhopu ka mea like: e hana i ka ikehu maʻemaʻe me ka ʻole o nā kinoea hoʻomehana honua e hoʻohana ana i kekahi mau kumuwaiwai ʻāina palena ʻole. I kēia hihia, e kamaʻilio mākou e pili ana i ka mea ka mana hydroelectric.

I kēia ʻatikala e haʻi aku mākou iā ʻoe i ka ikehu uila, pehea kona ʻano, pehea e hana ʻia ai a he aha nā mea maikaʻi a me nā mea maikaʻi ʻole.

He aha ka ikehu uila

he aha ka ikehu uila

Hoʻohana ka ikehu Hydroelectric i ka ikehu hiki o ka wai ma kahi kiʻekiʻe o ka moena o ka muliwai e hoʻolilo iā ia i ʻenekini mīkini ma kahi haʻahaʻa o ka moena kahawai a i ka hopena i ka ikehu uila. Hoʻohuli i ka mana o ka wai i ka uila. E hoʻohana ai i kēia ikehu, kūkulu ʻia kahi ʻōnaehana mālama wai nui e hoʻonui ka hiki o kēia kūloko, hiki ke hoʻohou a hoʻokuʻu ʻia me ka waiwai ʻole.

ʻO kahi mea kanu hydroelectric kahi hoʻonohonoho o nā pono uila a me nā pono pono e hoʻohuli i ka ikehu uila hiki ke lilo i ikehu uila a hiki ke hana i nā hola 24 i ka lā. Kūlike ka ikehu uila i ke kiʻekiʻe o ke kahe o ka wai a me ka wailele.

ʻO ke kahua uila uila maʻamau i ka honua ka ka mea i kapa ʻia ʻo "reservoir central". I kēia mau ʻano mea kanu, hōʻiliʻili ka wai i ka dam a hāʻule mai kahi kiʻekiʻe ma luna o ka pōpō, e hoʻohuli a hana i ka uila ma o ka mīkini hana i loko o ka nacelle. A laila hāpai ʻia kāna uila e hoʻololi i ka mana me ka ʻole o nā pohō nui a laila hoʻohui ʻia i ka pūnaewele. I kekahi ʻaoʻao, hoʻi ka wai i hoʻohana ʻia i kāna hana kūlohelohe.

ʻO kekahi ala ʻē aʻe ʻo "hala ʻana i nā hoʻololi." Lawe kēia mau ʻano mea kanu mana i ke kaulike ʻole o ka muliwai, a laila hoʻoili i ka wai ma o nā kahawai i kahi o ka mana, kahi e neʻe ai i nā piko (inā he pali kū ka muliwai) a i ʻole papamoe (inā haʻahaʻa ka pali. ) e like me kēlā mau kahi waihona wai i ke ala o ka hoʻoila uila. Hana mau kēia ʻano hale hana no ka mea ʻaʻohe o lākou waihona mālama wai.

Nā ʻāpana o kahi kahua uila uila

he aha ka ikehu uila

ʻO ka mea kanu hydroelectric kahi o kēia mau ʻāpana:

  • Punawai: ʻO ia ke kuleana no ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i nā kahawai a me ke kākoʻo ʻana i nā kino o ka wai (e laʻa me nā waihona wai) ma mua o ka paʻa ʻana, e hana ana i kahi ʻokoʻa i ka wai i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hana ikehu. Hiki ke hana ʻia nā kaola wahine i ka lepo a i ʻole ka pōkā (ʻoi loa ka hoʻohana ʻia).
  • Nā alanui: ʻO lākou ke kuleana no ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana i ka wai i kāpae ʻia i ka wai e kaʻe i ka lumi ʻenekini a hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia no nā pono wai. Aia lākou ma ka paia nui o ka pā a hiki ke lilo i lalo a i ʻole i luna. Lilo ka hapa nui o ka wai i loko o ke kīʻaha ma ka wāwae o ka wai e pale i ka pohō ke hāʻule ka wai.
  • Lawe ʻia ka wai: Na lākou ke kuleana no ka hōʻiliʻili ʻana i ka wai i hoʻopaʻa ʻia a lawe iā ia i ka mīkini ma o nā kahawai a i ʻole nā ​​paipu hoʻoikaika ʻia. ʻO ka puka komo wai kahi puka e hoʻoponopono ai i ka nui o ka wai i hiki i ka pōpō a me kahi kānana e pale ai i ke ala o nā mea haole (nā lāʻau, nā lālā, a pēlā aku.).
  • Mea kanu uila: Nā mīkini (e hana ana i nā pōpō, nā mīkini uila, nā ʻauamo a me nā mea hana) a me nā mea kaohi a me nā rula i loaʻa ma aneʻi. Loaʻa iā ia nā puka komo a puka e waiho ai i ka wahi o ka mīkini me ka ʻole o ka wai i ka wā o ka mālama a disass Assembly paha.
  • Nā pehu uila: ʻO lākou ke kuleana no ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka ikehu o ka wai e hele ma waena o ia mea e hoʻoulu i kahi neʻe ʻana ma o kāna iho axis. ʻEkolu ʻano nui: nā huila Pelton, nā pōpō Francis, a me nā pulina Kaplan (a i ʻole propeller).
  • Mea hoʻololi uila- Kekahi uila uila i hoʻohana ʻia e hoʻonui a hoʻēmi paha i ka uila o ke kaapuni o kēia wā ke mālama nei ka mana.
  • Laina hoʻoili uila: ke kaula uila e hoʻoili i ka ikehu i hana ʻia.

Nā ʻano o nā mea kanu uila hydroelectric

hana o kahi mea kanu uila

Aia i ke ʻano o ka hoʻomohala, hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia nā mea kanu hydroelectric i ʻekolu mau ʻano:

  • Nā mea kanu holo wai ʻo Runoff: hōʻiliʻili kēia mau mea kanu hydroelectric i ka wai mai nā kahawai e pili ana i nā kūlana o ke kaiapuni a me ke kahe o nā turbine i loaʻa. Liʻiliʻi ke kaulike ma waena o nā wahi o ka wai, a ʻo ia nā kikowaena e koi ai i kahi kahe mau.
  • Nā mea kanu Hydroelectric me nā waihona waihona paʻa: Hoʻohana kēia mau mea kanu hydroelectric i kekahi nui o ka waihona "upstream" ma o ka dam. Nānā ʻole i ke kahe o ka wai, hoʻokaʻawale ka waihona i ka nui o ka wai mai nā pōpō e hana ana i ka uila ma loko o ka makahiki. Hiki i kēia ʻano hale hana ke hoʻohana i ka ikehu loa a ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi o ka kWh.
  • Nā kikowaena paipu Hydroelectric: ʻO kēia mau mea kanu hydroelectric he ʻelua waihona wai me nā pae ʻokoʻa o ka wai, i hoʻohana ʻia ke pono ʻia ka ikehu hou aʻe. Holo ka wai mai ka waihona luna ma waena o ka pōpō i ka waihona haʻahaʻa a laila hoʻi i ka wai i loko o ka paipu wai i ka lā ke haʻahaʻa ka koi o ka ikehu.

ʻO Hydropower ma Sepania

Ua loaʻa nā holomua ʻenehana i nā kumu ikehu microhydraul i loaʻa i nā kumukūʻai hoʻokūkū ma ka mākeke uila, ʻoiai ke ʻano o kēia mau kumukūʻai e like me ke ʻano o nā mea kanu a me nā hana e hoʻokō ʻia ai. Inā ʻoi aku ka mana o ka mea kanu i hoʻonoho ʻia ma mua o 10 MW a hiki ke kū i ka wai a i ʻole ka wai holo, e manaʻo ʻia ka mea kanu he hale kanu hydroelectric liʻiliʻi ia.

I kēia lā, hoʻomohala ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka ʻāpana hydroelectric Sepania e hoʻonui ka maikaʻi i mea e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka hana o nā pono e kū nei. Hoʻonohonoho ʻia kēia mau ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo e hoʻoponopono, hōʻano hou, hoʻomaikaʻi a hoʻonui paha i kahi hale i hoʻonohonoho ʻia. Ke hoʻomohala ʻia nei nā microturbine neaa me nā mana ma lalo o 10 kW, pono kēia mau mea e hoʻohana i ka ikaika kinetic o nā kahawai a hana i ka uila ma nā wahi kaʻawale. Hoʻopuka pololei ka turbine i ka uila i ka hoʻololi hou ʻana o kēia au a ʻaʻole koi ia i ka wai hāʻule, nā hana hou a i ʻole nā ​​koina mālama kiʻekiʻe.

I kēia manawa aia ma Sepania he 800 mau mea kanu hydroelectric o nā nui like ʻole. Aia nā meakanu uila he 20 a ʻoi aku ma mua o 200 megawatts, kahi e hōʻike pū ai i ka 50% o ka nui o ka hanauna mana hydroelectric. Ma ka welau ʻē aʻe, He ʻumi mau kahawai liʻiliʻi ʻo Sepania me ka mana ma lalo o 20 megawatts.

Lana koʻu manaʻo me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i ke ʻano o ka ikehu uila a pehea e hana ai.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.