He aha ka papa honua

papa o ka Honua

Hoʻokaʻawale nā ​​ʻepekema kūlohelohe i nā ʻano kaiaola like ʻole o ka honua i mau pōʻai. ʻO kekahi o lākou ka geosphere. Ua kapa ʻia lākou ʻo ka pūʻulu o nā makahiki he ʻumi o ko kākou honua i kūkulu i ka ʻāpana paʻa o ia mea. Maanei hiki iā mākou ke ʻike i nā mea a pau e pili ana i nā pōhaku a me ke kōkua. ʻAʻole ʻike ka poʻe he nui he aha ka geosphere.

No kēia kumu, e hoʻolaʻa mākou i kēia ʻatikala e haʻi iā ʻoe i ke ʻano o ka geosphere, he aha kona mau hiʻohiʻona, ka haku mele a me ka mea nui.

He aha ka papa honua

he aha ka geosphere

I loko o ka ʻepekema kūlohelohe, ua kapa ʻia ka ʻāpana o nā papa i hana i ka ʻāpana paʻa o ka Honua. Me ka hydrosphere (ʻo ka ʻāpana wai), ka lewa (ke kinoea) a me ka biosphere (nā mea ola āpau), ʻo lākou nā ʻāpana o kā mākou honua i hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia.

E like me nā hōkū honua ʻē aʻe (me nā ʻili paʻa), ua haku ʻia ka Honua me nā mea pōhaku o nā waiwai like ʻole a hōʻike i nā ʻano hoʻoikaika like ʻole, ʻo ka hapa nui o ia mau mea i hoʻi mai i ka wā mua o ka honua a i ʻole i hana ʻia i ka wā koʻikoʻi o ka hana lua pele. Nui nā pōhaku kahiko i ʻike ʻia ma ka Honua mai ka 4.400 biliona makahiki aku nei.

Ke noiʻi nei nā kānaka kālaihonua a me nā poʻe akamai ʻē aʻe i ka honua ma o ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka lepo, ʻoi aku ka nui o nā wahi i hōʻike ʻia e nā hiʻohiʻona topographical i ka ʻili huna maʻamau.

Eia kekahi, ʻo ka nui o ka nānā ʻana he manaʻo a i loaʻa mai paha mai ka helu ʻana: ʻaʻole hiki ke ana pololei ʻia ka nuipa a me ka nui o ka Honua, akā ma o nā ʻano hoʻololi ʻē aʻe e hiki ke helu ʻia, e like me ka gravity a i ʻole ka leo o nā hawewe seismic.

ʻO ke ʻano a me ka haku mele

ka neʻe ʻana o ka pā

Ua aʻo ʻia ke ʻano o ka geosphere mai ʻelua mau hiʻohiʻona: kemika a me ka geological. E pili ana i kona haku mele ʻana, ʻekolu ʻāpana o ka geosphere: ʻo ka ʻōpala, ka ʻahu a me ke kumu.

  • Cortex (mai 0 a 35 km hohonu). ʻO ia ka papa pōhaku ʻili a mākou e noho nei, a ʻo kona mānoanoa ʻano lahilahi e manaʻo ʻia he 3,0 g/cm3 ka mānoanoa awelika. Aia i loko o ke kai a me ka hohonu hohonu. ʻO ka nui o nā pōhaku mafic (hao a me ka magnesium silicates), nā pōhaku felsic (sodium silicate, potassium silicate a me aluminosilicates).
  • Pālule (mai 35 a 2.890 km hohonu). ʻO ia ka papa mānoanoa loa a ua hana ʻia me nā pōhaku siliceous me ka ʻiʻo hao i ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe ma mua o ka ʻōpala. I ko mākou komo ʻana i loko o ka ʻaʻahu, e piʻi nui ana nā mahana a me nā kaomi, a hiki i kahi ʻano semi-paʻa i loko o nā pōhaku e hana ai i ka ʻaʻahu, hiki ke ʻae i nā papa tectonic e neʻe a hoʻoulu i ke olai a me ke olai. Ma muli o ke kaomi, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka ʻaoʻao o luna o ka ʻaʻahu a ʻoi aku ka wai ma mua o ka ʻaoʻao haʻahaʻa, ʻokoʻa ka nui ma waena o 1021 a me 1024 Pa.
  • ʻĀina (mai 2.890 a 6.371 km hohonu). ʻO ka ʻaoʻao o loko o ka Honua, kahi i loaʻa ai ka mea ʻoi loa (ʻo ka Honua ka honua mānoanoa o ka ʻōnaehana solar). Ua māhele ʻia ke kumu o ka Honua i ʻelua papa: ʻo ke kumu o waho (2890 a 5150 mau kilomita ka hohonu) a me ka hohonu o loko (5150 a 6371 mau kilomita ka hohonu), i haku ʻia me ka hao (80%) a me ka nickel, aʻo nā mea e like me ke kēpau. a nele ka uranium.

Akā, mai kahi hiʻohiʻona honua, ua māhele ʻia ka geosphere i:

  • Litosfir (mai 0 a 100 km ka hohonu). ʻO kēia ka ʻāpana paʻa o ka honua, kahi e loaʻa ai nā pōhaku paʻa, a pili i ka ʻaoʻao o luna o ka ʻōpala a me ka ʻahu. Hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ia i nā papa tectonic a i ʻole lithospheric, ma ko lākou mau ʻaoʻao he seismic, lua pele a me ka orogeny phenomena.
  • ʻAkopohō (100 a 400 km hohonu). Hoʻokumu ʻia ia e nā mea paʻa semi-solid a ductile solid, e pili ana i ke kapa. ʻO ka neʻe mālie loa e like me ka neʻe ʻana o ka ʻāina ma laila, akā i kona hoʻokokoke ʻana i ke kumu, nalowale kona mau waiwai a lilo i ʻoʻoleʻa e like me ka ʻaʻahu lalo.
  • ʻĀina (mai 2.890 a 6.371 km hohonu). ʻO ke kumu, a i ʻole ka pōʻai i loko, ma ka hope o ka ʻaʻahu lalo, ʻo ia ka ʻaoʻao honua honua ka nui o ka honua (60% o ka huina). ʻOi aku kona radius ma mua o ko Mars (ma kahi o 3.500 mau kilomita), me ke kaomi nui a me nā mahana ma luna o 6.700 ° C. He mea nui ia i ka hao a me ka nickel, a ua māhele ʻia i loko o ka wai i waho a me ka paʻa i loko.

ʻO ke koʻikoʻi o ka geosphere

he aha ka geosphere a me kona mau papa

ʻO ka geosphere ka ʻāpana kahiko loa o ko kākou honua a mālama ʻia kāna mau mea huna a pau ma lalo o ka laka a me ke kī. Ke hoʻāʻo nei ka poʻe kālaihonua e ʻimi i nā kaʻina hana like ʻole i hoʻokumu ʻia ai, kahi e hoʻomālamalama ai ka hoʻokumu ʻana o nā hōkū ʻē aʻe i ka ʻōnaehana solar a no laila ke kumu o ke ao holoʻokoʻa. Pēlā nō ka seismology, ka ʻepekema e hoʻāʻo e hoʻomaopopo i ke ʻano o ka geology a me ka neʻe tectonic i mea e pale ai i nā ōlaʻi e hiki mai ana a pale iā lākou mai ka hoʻopōʻino nui ʻana i nā kānaka.

Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, hele pū ke aʻo ʻana i ka geosphere me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i nā mea i loaʻa iā mākou ma ka Honua, me nā hopena koʻikoʻi no nā ʻoihana like ʻole, ka ʻenekinia a me ke kālepa honua, a me nā ʻoihana koʻikoʻi ʻē aʻe.

ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona nui o kēlā me kēia māhele o ka geosphere

ʻĀina

ʻO ke kumu, e like me kona inoa, ʻo ia ka ʻaoʻao hohonu o ka Honua a no laila aia i waenakonu o ka pōʻai honua. Ke kamaʻilio e pili ana i ke kumu, ʻelua mau ʻāpana maʻamau:

  • ʻĀina
  • Nukele kūwaho

ʻO ke kumu ka ʻāpana paʻa, ʻoiai ʻo ia no ka mea ʻoʻoleʻa loa, ʻoiai ʻo ia ka wahi wela loa ma ka Honua.

ʻO ka nucleus ka nui o nā mea kaumaha e like me hao, nikela, uranium a me ke gula, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe he nui. ʻO kēia no ka mea, ma muli o ko lākou kaumaha, i ka wā o ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i ka honua, ua pau kēia mau mea i nā wahi hohonu loa o ka honua, me nā mea māmā ʻē aʻe, akā pili i nā mea kaumaha, ua kauo pū ʻia lākou i ka ʻāpana hohonu. o ka Honua.

Pālule

E like me ke kumu, ua māhele ʻia ka ʻaʻahu i loko o ka ʻaʻahu a me ka ʻaʻahu waho. Eia nō naʻe, i ka hihia o ka ʻaʻahu, ʻaʻole mākou e pili ana i kahi ʻano paʻa, akā he wai. I ka 'oiaʻiʻo, ʻo ka pelemaka, ka mea wela a paʻa e hū ana mai ka lua pele i ka wā e pili ana me ka lewa, kapa ʻia ka pele.

ʻOi aku ka laulā o nā mea waiwai o ka ʻaʻahu, no laila hiki ke loaʻa nā mea kaumaha a māmā. No ka mea, he hale wai, he hale hoʻoneʻe mau. Pono kēia i ka mea i kapa ʻia he hana geological, ma ka nui o nā ōlaʻi, nā pele pele, a me ka hana tectonic plate.

Cortex

ʻO ka ʻōpala ka ʻaoʻao paʻa o waho o ka Honua, akā ʻaʻole pēlā ka hihia. I ka wā o ka hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o ka Honua, ua maʻalili mālie ʻo ia a, ʻoiaʻiʻo, hoʻomau ka maʻalili. Hoʻopuehu ka wela mua i waho o ka honua, no laila e maʻalili ka ʻili o ka ʻili, e lana ai ka ʻili paʻa ma luna o ka ʻaʻahu wai, hiki ke mālama i kona mahana ma muli o ka insulation o ka ʻōpala.

ka ʻili ʻO ia hoʻi kahi e hōʻuluʻulu nui ai nā mea māmā i hana i ka pōʻai honua.. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ma muli o kēia kūlana i paʻakikī loa ka loaʻa ʻana o nā mea e like me ka hao, ke kēpau, ka uranium a i ʻole ke gula ma ka ili o ka honua. ʻOiaʻiʻo, ʻelua wale nō kumu o kēia mau mea kaumaha. Ua huki ʻia lākou e nā mea māmā a waiho ʻia ma ka ʻili o ka Honua i ka wā o ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o ka honua, a i ʻole i hele mai lākou i ko mākou honua ma o nā meteorites a me nā asteroids ma hope o ka paʻa ʻana o ka ʻāʻī, kuʻi me ka ʻili paʻa, ʻaʻole i pohō a noho i ka lewa.

Manaʻo wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou e pili ana i ke ʻano o ka geosphere a me kona ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.