ʻO Chondrichthyes

ʻO Chondrichthyes

ka ʻO Chondrichthyes (Chondrichthyans), i kapa ʻia hoʻi nā iʻa cartilaginous, he pūʻulu o nā vertebrates wai kahiko loa. ʻOiai ʻaʻole lākou e like me ka nui a ʻokoʻa paha e like me nā iʻa iwi, ʻo ko lākou hiki ke hoʻololi ʻia, ka ʻiʻo ʻauʻau, nā ʻano ʻike, a me nā ʻano predation ikaika a me nā ʻauwae e hōʻike ana ua hāʻawi ʻia lākou i kahi kūlana kaiaola paʻa i ke kaiapuni a lākou e noho ai.

Ma kēia ʻatikala e haʻi mākou iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau e pono ai ʻoe e ʻike e pili ana i ka Chondrichthyes, ko lākou ʻano a me ka biology.

ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona nui o ka Chondrichthyes

hana hou ʻana o nā iʻa cartilaginous

ʻElua ʻano iʻa cartilaginous. A laila, e wehewehe mākou i kāna mau hiʻohiʻona nui:

ʻO nā lālā Elasmobranch

No kēia hui holoholona nā mano a me nā kukuna. ʻO kekahi o lākou he carnivores, ʻimi lākou i kā lākou mea pio ma o kā lākou olfactory organ ma muli o ko lākou ulu ʻana i ka ʻike. I kēia manawa, aia ma mua o 400 mau ʻano manō i 8 mau kauoha a ma kahi o 500 mau ʻano kukuna i 4 mau kauoha. No nā manō, ʻo ka hapa nui o kēia mau ʻano:

  • Ke Kino: He kino ʻano milo me ke alo kiko me ka ʻōpū i mua. ʻO ka huelo o ke kino he huelo paʻa ʻole ʻia, ʻo ia hoʻi, ʻelua ʻano ʻano like ʻole a me nā ʻano o nā lau, aia kekahi o ia i ka hopena o ka iwi kuamoʻo, a ʻo ka mua he mau pectoral fins, ʻelua o nā pelvic fins. , a me na hope elua. nā peʻa ʻē aʻe. I nā kāne, ua hoʻololi mua ʻia nā ʻili pelvic ma ke ʻano he ʻano wahine no ka male ʻana a ua kapa ʻia ʻo glycoptera, pteropods, a i ʻole genus.
  • ʻO ka hihiʻo, ka ʻili a me nā ʻāpana loaʻa: e pili ana i ka waha, loaʻa iā lākou nā puka ihu like, ventral a me mua. ʻAʻohe poʻi o nā maka, ʻoiai he mau membrane nictitating kekahi o nā ʻano, me kahi stoma ma hope o kēlā me kēia lihilihi. He paʻakikī ka ʻili a ma kekahi mau ʻano like me ka pepa one, he mau unahi koʻikoʻi kona ʻano, a kapa ʻia hoʻi nā unahi dermal, i hoʻonohonoho ʻia ma ke ʻano e hōʻemi ai i ka haunaele a ke alo i hope. Loaʻa iā lākou nā neuromas i loko o ko lākou kino a me nā poʻo, he mau mea hoʻokipa koʻikoʻi loa i nā haʻalulu a me nā kahe wai. Loaʻa iā lākou nā mea loaʻa kūikawā e hiki ke ʻike i nā mea pio ma o ke kahua uila a lākou e hoʻopuka ai, ʻo lākou nā ʻōhū Lorenzini ma ke poʻo.
  • ʻEthlelo: ʻAʻole hui nā niho me ka iwi ā lalo, ʻelua lālani, hoʻololi ka lālani hope i nā niho i nalowale i ka lālani mua, no laila hiki ke ulu mau nā niho hou. Ma muli o ke ʻano, hiki ke loaʻa ke ʻano serrated no ka ʻoki ʻana i ka meaʻai, ʻoi aku ka ʻoi a loaʻa ka hana hoʻopaʻa ʻana, i ka hihia o nā ʻano ʻoniʻoni, he mau niho palahalaha hiki ke ʻoki ʻia ma ka ʻili.
  • Iwi a me ka ʻauʻau: Ua hoʻomaʻamaʻa lākou i nā iwi cartilage, ʻaʻole i like ka iwi e like me nā iʻa ʻē aʻe. Eia kekahi, ʻaʻohe o lākou ʻauʻau ʻauʻau, kahi e ʻauʻau mau ai lākou a noho i lalo, i ʻole e pohō lākou. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, loaʻa iā lākou kahi ate nui, aia nā lipids (squalene), ka mea e pale aku ai i ke poho.

ʻO Holocephalos

Ma loko o ka Chondrichthyes ʻike mākou i kēia pūʻulu me nā chimeras. Aia kēia hui liʻiliʻi ma kahi o 47 mau ʻano i kēia lā. Anatomically loaʻa iā ia ka hui ʻana o ka elasmobranch a me nā ʻano iʻa iwi:

  • Ke kino: He ʻano ʻano ʻē loa ko lākou ʻano, ua lōʻihi ko lākou kino a puka ko lākou mau poʻo, he ʻano maʻamau ko lākou hiki ke kākoʻo i nā wahine i ka wā o ka male ʻana. Ua like kona ihu me ka lapiti a ua like kona huelo me ka huipa.
  • ʻĀwae a me nā niho: ʻAʻohe o lākou niho, akā ākea, papa pālahalaha. Hoʻohui ʻia ka ʻāwae luna me ka iwi poʻo, ʻaʻole like me nā poʻe ʻē aʻe, mai laila mai kona inoa (holo = pau, āpau a me cephalo = poʻo).
  • Nui: Hiki iā lākou ke piʻi i ka 2 mika ka lōʻihi.
  • ke pale ana: He iwi kuamoʻo ko kona hope hope.
  • ʻAi: Hoʻokumu ʻia kā lākou meaʻai i nā crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, iʻa liʻiliʻi, a me nā algae, ʻo ia nā hui ʻai a lākou e wili ai i ka wā hānai.

ʻAuʻau o nā Chondrichthyes

kamalei

Loaʻa i nā Elasmobranchs nā unahi dermal, e ʻae iā lākou e hōʻemi i ka haunaele i ka wā ʻauʻau. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, me ko lākou ate momona momona, ko lākou hiki ke ale i ka ea, a me ko lākou mau ʻū, he poʻe ʻauʻau maikaʻi loa lākou a hiki i kēia mau hoʻololi ke hiki iā lākou ke noho i loko o ka wai. Hiki i nā ʻili ʻē ke hoʻoluliluli iā ʻoe, a hiki i nā ʻili ke hoʻomalu iā ʻoe. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, hiki i ka ʻēheu hope ke hoʻomalu i ka pahu a hoʻoulu i ka ikaika hoʻomaha ma muli o kona ʻano maʻamau.

Hoʻololi ʻia nā kukuna Manta i ke ola ma lalo o ka wai, palahalaha ke kino, me na pehu like e laula a hui me ke poo, e like me na eheu ke au. He palahalaha ko lakou mau niho, hiki ke wili i ka ili a me ka wili i ka ai, he mau crustaceans, mollusks a me na i'a liilii.

ʻO ko lākou huelo he ʻano huikala, me hoʻokahi a ʻoi aʻe paha spines ma ka hope, i pili i nā ʻawaʻawa o kekahi ʻano. Loaʻa iā lākou nā ʻāpana uila ma nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua o ko lākou mau poʻo, hiki ke hana i nā haʻalulu uila a hoʻopā i kā lākou mea pio a i ʻole nā ​​​​mea ʻaihue.

Hoʻopili

Chondrichthyes evolution

Loaʻa i nā iʻa Cartilaginous ka hoʻoulu ʻana i loko a me nā ʻano hana hānau ʻē aʻe a mākou e ʻike ai ma lalo nei:

  • Oviparous: Hoomoe lakou i na hua yolk-filled ma hope koke iho o ka fertilization. Nui nā manō a me nā kukuna e waiho i kā lākou mau hua i loko o ka ʻeke keratinous. Hoʻokumu ʻia nā filament like me Tendril ma ka hope o ka ʻeke, i hoʻohana ʻia e pili i ka mea paʻa mua a lākou e hoʻopā ai. Hiki ke hana ʻia nā embryos i loko o 6 mahina a 2 mau makahiki. ʻO ka maʻamau, loaʻa kēia ʻano i nā ʻano liʻiliʻi, benthic, hiki ke waiho i 100 mau hua.
  • Viviparous: E hoʻomohala lākou i kahi placenta maoli kahi e ʻai ai ka embryo. ʻO kēia ʻano hana hou i hāpai i kā lākou holomua holomua ma kēia hui. Loaʻa ia ma kahi o 60% o nā iʻa cartilaginous a me nā ʻano hana nui.
  • Oviviparous: paʻa lākou i ka embryo i loko o ka ʻōpū fallopian i ka wā o ka ulu ʻana o ka embryonic a hānai i kāna ʻeke yolk a hiki i ka hānau ʻana. ʻO ia hoʻi, hāʻawi ia i nā embryos me nā ʻano meaʻai like ʻole, e like me ka lecithin, kahi e hānai ai ka embryo i ka hua manu; meaʻai kino, kahi e hānai ʻia ai hoʻokahi a ʻoi aku paha nā embryos e ka wai (tissue nutrition) i hana ʻia e ka villi ma ka ʻili o loko o ka ʻōpū. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, aia nā ovules, ʻo ia hoʻi, nā embryos e hānai ana i nā hua momona i ka wā i loko o ka ʻōpū. ʻO ka hope, aia nā ʻoleander a i ʻole ka cannibalism i loko o ka ʻōpū.

Manaʻo wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i nā Chondrichthyes a me kā lākou ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.

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