ʻāpana o ke kelepona

nā māhele a pau o ke kelepona ʻIke mākou ʻo ke kelepona ka ʻāpana hana kumu o nā ʻiʻo āpau i nā holoholona a me nā mea kanu. I kēia hihia, ua manaʻo ʻia nā holoholona he ʻano multicellular, no laila ua ʻoi aku lākou ma mua o hoʻokahi cell. ʻO ke ʻano o nā sela i loaʻa iā ia ka cell eukaryotic a ua ʻike ʻia ʻo ia ma ka loaʻa ʻana o ka nucleus maoli a me nā organelles kūikawā like ʻole. Eia naʻe, aia nā ʻano like ʻole ʻāpana o kahi keaka a he hana okoa ko kela mea keia mea.

Ma kēia ʻatikala e haʻi mākou iā ʻoe i nā mea āpau e pono ai ʻoe e ʻike e pili ana i nā ʻāpana like ʻole o ke kelepona a he aha ka ʻokoʻa nui ma waena o kahi cell holoholona a me kahi cell plant.

ʻāpana o ke kelepona

ʻāpana o kahi pūnae holoholona

ʻĀina

He organelle kūikawā i ka hana a me ka lawelawe ʻana i ka ʻike kelepona. Hoʻokahi nucleus maʻamau nā cell Eukaryotic, akā aia kekahi mau ʻokoʻa kahi e loaʻa ai iā mākou nā nuclei he nui. ʻOkoʻa ke ʻano o kēia organelle ma muli o ke kelepona i loko, akā he poepoe. Mālama ʻia ka mea genetic i loko o ke ʻano o ka DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), nona ke kuleana no ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana i nā hana o ke kelepona: mai ka ulu a hiki i ka hana hou. Aia kekahi hale ʻike ʻia i loko o ka nucleus i kapa ʻia ʻo ka nucleolus, i hana ʻia e ka ʻike ʻana o ka chromatin a me ka protein. He 1 a hiki i ka 5 nucleoli nā pūnaewele mammal.

ʻO ka membrane plasma a me ka cytoplasm

cytoplasm

ʻO ka membrane plasma ka hale e hoʻopuni ana i ke kelepona a aia i loko o nā pūnaewele ola a pau. ʻO ia ke kuleana o ka hoʻopili ʻana i kēia mau mea a me ka pale ʻana iā lākou mai ke kaiapuni o waho, ʻAʻole kēia manaʻo he membrane sila no ka mea, loaʻa iā ia nā pores a me nā hale ʻē aʻe kahi e hele ai kekahi mau moleke e hoʻokō i nā kaʻina kūloko o ka cell animal.

ʻO ka cytoplasm o nā pūnaewele holoholona ka manawa ma waena o ka membrane cytoplasmic a me ka nucleus, kahi e hoʻopuni ai i nā ʻāpana āpau. He 70% ka wai a ʻo ke koena he hui pū ʻia o nā protein, lipids, carbohydrates a me nā paʻakai mineral. He mea nui kēia ʻano no ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ke ola o ke kelepona.

Endoplasmic reticulum a me Golgi apparatus

ʻO ka endoplasmic reticulum he organelle ma ke ʻano o nā ʻeke palahalaha a me nā tubules i hoʻopaʻa ʻia ma luna o kekahi, e kaʻana like ana i ka lumi o loko. Hoʻonohonoho ʻia ka reticulum i kekahi mau ʻāpana: ʻo ka endoplasmic reticulum rough, me kahi membrane palahalaha a me nā ribosomes pili, a me ka reticulum endoplasmic maʻalahi, ʻoi aku ka maʻamau i ka helehelena a me ka ʻole o nā ribosomes pili.

He pūʻulu o nā membrane e like me ka pahu ke kuleana no ka hāʻawi ʻana a me ka hāʻawi ʻana i nā huahana kemika mai ke kelepona, ʻo ia hoʻi, ʻo ia ke kikowaena o ka huna huna. He ʻano like ia me ka Golgi complex a i ʻole mea hana o kahi pūnaewele mea kanu a aia ʻekolu ʻāpana: ka ʻeke membrane, nā tubules kahi e lawe ʻia ai nā mea i loko a i waho o ke kelepona, a ma hope ka vacuole.

Centrosome, cilia a me flagella

ʻO ka centrosome kahi hiʻohiʻona o nā pūnae holoholona a he ʻano hollow cylindrical i haku ʻia me ʻelua centrioles. hoʻonohonoho pono ʻia kekahi i kekahi. Hoʻokumu ʻia ka hui ʻana o kēia organelle i nā tubules protein, he hana koʻikoʻi koʻikoʻi i ka mahele cell mai ka wā e hoʻonohonoho ai lākou i ka cytoskeleton a hana i ka spindle i ka wā mitosis. Hiki iā ia ke hana i nā cilia a i ʻole flagella.

ʻO ka cilia a me ka flagella o nā pūnaewele holoholona he mau mea hoʻohui i hana ʻia e nā microtubules e hāʻawi i ka wai i ke kelepona. Aia lākou i loko o nā organism unicellular a nona ke kuleana no kā lākou neʻe ʻana, ʻoiai ma nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe ua hoʻohana ʻia lākou e hoʻopau i nā hana kaiapuni a i ʻole ka sensory. ʻOi aku ka nui o ka cilia ma mua o ka flagella.

mitochondria a me ka cytoskeleton

ʻO Mitochondria nā ʻāpana i loko o nā pūnae holoholona kahi e hiki mai ai nā meaʻai ua hoʻololi ʻia lākou i ikehu ma ke kaʻina hana i kapa ʻia ka hanu. Ua lōʻihi ko lākou ʻano a loaʻa i ʻelua mau membrane: ʻo ka membrane i loko i pelu ʻia e hana i ka cristae a me kahi membrane waho maʻemaʻe. ʻO ka helu o nā mitochondria i loko o kēlā me kēia cell e pili ana i kā lākou hana (no ka laʻana, i loko o nā ʻiʻo ʻiʻo he nui ka mitochondria).

No ka hoʻopiha ʻana i ka papa inoa o nā ʻāpana nui o nā cell holoholona, ​​​​e nānā mākou i ka cytoskeleton. Hana ʻia ia me kahi pūʻulu o nā filament i loko o ka cytoplasm a, me ka hoʻohui ʻana i kāna hana o ka hana ʻana i nā cell, aia pū kekahi i ke kākoʻo o nā organelles.

Nā ʻokoʻa ma waena o ka cell holoholona a me nā mea kanu

Nā ʻokoʻa ma waena o ka cell holoholona a me nā mea kanu

Aia kekahi mau ʻokoʻa nui ma nā ʻāpana o ka holoholona a me ka cell mea kanu. E ʻike kākou i nā ʻokoʻa nui:

  • Nā pūnaewele kanu Loaʻa iā ia kahi pā ma waho o ka membrane plasma i loaʻa ʻole i ka holoholona. Me he mea lā ʻo ia ka lua o ka uhi ʻana i ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi. Hāʻawi kēia pā i ka rigidity nui a me ka pale ʻoi aku. Aia kēia pā i ka cellulose, lignin a me nā mea ʻē aʻe. Loaʻa i kekahi o nā ʻāpana pā hale i kekahi mau noi i nā ʻoihana kalepa a me nā ʻoihana.
  • ʻAʻole like me ka cell holoholona, ​​aia i ka cell mea kanu nā chloroplasts i loko. ʻO Chloroplasts nā mea i loaʻa nā pigment e like me chlorophyll a i ʻole carotene nā mea e ʻae i nā mea kanu i photosynthesize.
  • Hiki i nā mea kanu ke hana i kā lākou meaʻai ponoʻī no kekahi mau ʻāpana inorganic. Hana lākou i kēia ma o ka hanana o ka photosynthesis. Kapa ʻia kēia ʻano meaʻai pono autotrophic.
  • ʻO nā pūnaewele holoholona, ​​ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻaʻohe ona hiki ke hana i kā lākou meaʻai ponoʻī mai nā ʻāpana inorganic. No laila, heterotrophic kāna meaʻai. Pono nā holoholona e hoʻohui i ka meaʻai meaola e like me nā holoholona ʻē aʻe a i nā mea kanu paha.
  • Hiki i nā mea kanu ke hoʻololi ka ikehu kemika i ka ikehu i ka ikehu o ka la a i ka ikehu malamalama no ke kaʻina hana photosynthesis.
  • I nā pūnaewele holoholona, ​​hāʻawi ʻia ka ikehu e ka mitochondria.
  • Noho ʻia ka cytoplasm o ka mea kanu e nā vacuoles nui ma 90% o ka lewa. I kekahi manawa hoʻokahi wale nō vacuole nui. Mālama nā vacuoles e mālama i nā huahana like ʻole i puka mai i ka wā metabolism. Eia kekahi, hoʻopau ia i nā huahana ʻōpala like ʻole i hana ʻia i nā hopena metabolic like. He mau vacuoles ko nā pūnae holoholona holoholona akā he li'ili'i loa lākou a 'a'ole nui ka nui o nā wahi.
  • I loko o nā pūnaewele holoholona e loaʻa iā mākou kahi organelle kēlā kapa ʻia he centrosome. ʻO ia ka mea nāna e hoʻokaʻawale i nā chromosomes no ka hana ʻana i nā keena kaikamahine, ʻoiai i loko o nā mea kanu ʻaʻohe organelle e like me ia.
  • He prismatic kinona ko nā mea kanu kanu, ʻoiai he ʻokoʻa nā kinona holoholona.

Manaʻolana wau me kēia ʻike hiki iā ʻoe ke aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i nā ʻāpana o ke kelepona a me kona mau ʻano.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

*

*

  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.

bool(ʻoiaʻiʻo)