Kayan zafi mai zafi

kayan zafi

Ba za mu iya musun cewa robobi sun zo don canza rayuwarmu ba. Akwai nau'ikan robobi da yawa da ke da amfani daban-daban a zamaninmu na yau. Daya daga cikinsu shine thermoplastics. Tsara ce ta kwayoyin halitta wacce aka samu ta hanyar polymer hade da karfi tsakanin kwayar halittar da ke iya kirkirar layi da sifofin rassa. Suna da sassauƙan abubuwa masu lalacewa muddin suna da yanayin zafi mai yawa.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da thermoplastics, halayensu da amfaninsu.

Babban fasali

kayayyakin zafin jiki

Nau'in filastik ne wanda za'a iya gyara shi kuma a sake shi sau da yawa a yanayin zafi mai zafi. Godiya ga tsarin yin simintin gyaran kafa, ana iya amfani dashi sosai dangane da sake amfani dashi, tunda za'a iya sake tunawa dashi don gyara su da basu sabuwar rayuwa. Yayinda robobi ke narkewa, kayan da suka rasa halayensu za'a iya sake su. Matsalar ita ce tana raguwa da ƙasa da sake sake amfani da shi kuma ba za a iya amfani da shi ba.

Akwai wasu nau'ikan thermoplastics wadanda suke thermoset. Wannan yana nufin cewa zasu iya ɗaukar hoto na dindindin bayan an buga su a yanayin zafi mai ƙarfi kuma ba za a sake narke su ba tunda zai ƙone. Sabili da haka, ya zama thermoplastic mara sake sakewa.

Babban nau'in thermoplastics

kayayyakin thermoplastic

Bari mu ga menene manyan nau'ikan thermoplastics da za'a iya gane su ta hanyar abubuwan da aka zana a kowane tushe na samfurin da ake amfani da shi:

  • HDPE (high-yawa polyethylene) da LDPE (low-density polyethylene): shine kayan filastik na kowa, mai matukar juriya, mai iya aiki, mai araha, mai nuna haske ko fari, kuma yana da kyawawan halaye na kayan rufi. HDPE yana da tasiri, yana da ƙarfi kuma yana da sauƙin aiwatarwa, ana iya amfani dashi don yin kwalabe, gwangwani, tankunan ruwa da kwantena masu jigilar kaya. LPDE na iya zama translucent ko bayyane, kuma yana iya zama cikin ma'amala da abinci, wanda shine dalilin da yasa ake amfani dashi a cikin samfuran kamar jaka, marufi da kayan wasa.
  • PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride): Ita ce mafi yawan kayan kwalliyar filastik kuma ana iya samar dasu ta hanyoyi daban-daban guda huɗu (dakatarwa, emulsion, toshewa da mafita). Yana da filastik mai saurin jurewa ga abrasion, sunadarai, yanayi da wuta. Ana amfani dashi a masana'antar takarda da kuma kera marufi don abinci, katunan bashi, kayan ɗaki, kayan wasa da sutura.
  • PP (polypropylene): Zazzabi mai laushi ya fi na polyethylene kuma yana da sauƙin sakawa. Yana da haske, mara nauyi kuma mai karko, kuma ana iya amfani dashi don robobi da zare. Ba ya sha ruwa, yana da sauƙin shigarwa, kuma yana da ƙarfi mai ƙarfi ga fatattakar matsalolin muhalli. Ana amfani dasu don yin zaren zaren, gaskets, marufi, katifu, igiyoyi, marufi da kayan ɗaki.
  • PS (polystyrene) - Akwai manyan nau'ikan polystyrene guda hudu. Gaskiya, mai wuya da gilashin PS. Ana iya yin shi a cikin launuka masu haske da mara haske. Ana amfani dashi sau da yawa don maye gurbin gilashi, aluminium, da katako saboda yana da rahusa. Ana amfani da polystyrene a cikin marufi (gami da abinci), kwantena, kwalaye, fitilu, abubuwan yarwa, kayan wasa, da kofuna.

Kayan aikin thermoplastics

thermoplastics

Wadannan thermoplastics sune masu zuwa:

  • PB (Polybutene) -An yi amfani dashi ƙwarai a cikin bututun mai da masana'antar dumama don ƙera bututu. Yana da halaye waɗanda ke ba da damar amfani da shi a fagen bututun ruwa mai ɗumi da ruwan sanyi, saboda haɗuwa da sassauci da ƙarfin zafin jiki a yanayin zafi mai ƙarfi.
  • PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate): yana ɗayan robobi na injiniya, yana gasa tare da sauran kayan zafi irinsu polycarbonate ko polystyrene. Ana amfani da shi a masana'antar kera motoci don kera fitilun mota da sauran bangarori, harma da haske, kayan shafe-shafe, gine-gine, kimiyyan gani, da kuma nishadi. Dangane da tsayin daka mai ƙarfi, kyakkyawa mai kyau da launi mai haske, ana ɗaukarsa mai kyau maimakon gilashi.
  • PET (polyethylene terephthalate): shi thermoplastic ana amfani dashi ko'ina cikin yadi da marufin abin sha. Kodayake danko yana raguwa da tarihin zafin jiki, ana iya sake amfani dashi kuma an yarda dashi don amfani dashi a cikin samfuran da suka haɗu da abinci kai tsaye. Yana da haske, m, crystalline, mai hana ruwa, tare da babban flexural ƙarfi da low sha danshi sha.
  • ptfe (Polytetrafluoroethylene): Wannan thermoplastic an fi saninsa da Teflon. Babban halayyar sa itace cewa da gaske baya aiki, saboda haka baya aiki tare da wasu sinadarai, sai dai a yanayi na musamman. Yana da tasiri mara ƙarfi kuma yana kiyaye halayensa a cikin yanayin yanayi mai danshi.
  • Nailan: Nau'in fiber ne na roba da na roba. A asu ba sa kai masa hari kuma ba sa bukatar guga. Ana amfani dashi don yin safa, yadudduka da kayan saƙa. Idan kayan kwalliya ne, ana amfani dashi don yin abin goge, combs, da sauran na'urori.

Halayen yanayin zafi

Kowane filastik yana da zafin jiki na miƙa mulki, a ƙasa wanda zai zama da wuya kuma mai rauni, a sama wanda zai zama mai laushi da na roba. Wannan halayyar tana bawa thermoplastics damar zama mai laushi da sassauƙa, kamar kayan da ke rufe igiyoyi. Kuma bututun ruwan PVC yana da tauri da tauri.

Idan aka kwatanta da thermoplastics, waɗannan thermosets suna da wasu kaddarorin masu fa'ida. Misali, suna da juriya mafi kyau ga girgiza, solvents, shigar iska da yanayin zafi mai yawa. Koyaya, saboda halayensa, ga wasu sassan, aikinsa yana da ɗan rikitarwa. Rawarin kayan ƙasa na kowane filastik shine ɗanyen mai, da carbon, oxygen, da hydrogen.

Ta wani bangaren kuma, thermoplastics shima zai iya zama mai yawa ko kadan ya hada da wasu abubuwan sinadarai kamar sulfur, silicon, phosphorus, nitrogen, chlorine da fluorine. Duk ya dogara da nau'in thermoplastic da ake tambaya. Filastikitan zafin jiki ba za a iya yin amfani da shi ba kuma ba za a iya narkewa ba. Wannan saboda waɗannan sarƙoƙin filastik suna ƙirƙirar cibiyar sadarwa mai girma uku, don haka ana haɗa su ta ƙaƙƙarfan bonding bonds. Ta wannan hanyar, an kafa tsarin polymeric na sarƙoƙi masu haɗuwa, wanda yayi kama da aiki irin na manyan kwayoyin. Yayinda yawan zafin ta ya karu, sai sarkokin su kara karfi ta yadda polymer zai zama mai karfi har ya kai ga inda yake raguwa.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da yanayin zafi da yanayin su.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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