Menene kuma yaya tashar samar da wutar lantarki take aiki?

masana'antar samar da wutar lantarki

Otherarfin ƙasa shine nau'in sabuntawar makamashi wanda ke iya amfani da zafi daga ƙasan ƙasa zuwa dumama gine-gine da samun ruwan zafi a cikin hanyar muhalli. Yana daya daga cikin sanannun sanannun hanyoyin sabuntawa, amma sakamakonsa yana da matukar ban mamaki.

Wannan makamashi Dole ne a samar da shi a cikin tsire-tsire, amma menene tsire-tsire na ƙasa kuma yaya yake aiki?

Shuka wutar lantarki

Iskar gas daga tashar samar da wutar lantarki

Wutar da take samar da wutar lantarki wani wuri ne inda ake ciro zafi daga doron kasa don samar da makamashi mai sabuntawa. Haɗarin Carbon dioxide a cikin sararin samaniya daga ƙarni na wannan nau'in makamashi ya kai kimanin 45 g kan matsakaita. Wannan lissafin kasa da 5% na hayaki yayi daidai da burbushin tsire-tsire mai ƙona burbushin halittu, don haka ana iya ɗaukar sa mai ƙarfi.

Manyan kasashen da ke samar da makamashi a duniya sune Amurka, Philippines da Indonesia. Dole ne a yi la'akari da cewa makamashin da ke ƙasa, kodayake za'a iya sabunta shi, iyakance makamashi ne. An iyakance, ba wai saboda zafin duniya zai ƙare ba (nesa da shi), amma ana iya fitar da shi ta hanyar da ta dace a wasu ɓangarorin duniya inda aikin zafin rana na ƙasa ya fi ƙarfi. Labari ne game da waɗancan "wuraren zafi" inda za'a iya fitar da karin kuzari ta kowane yanki.

Tunda ilimin game da makamashin na ƙasa bai ci gaba sosai ba, theungiyar Makamashin Geothermal ta kiyasta cewa kawai ana amfani da ita a halin yanzu 6,5% na ƙarfin duniya na wannan makamashi.

Albarkatun makamashi na geothermal

madatsar ruwa ta makamashi

Tunda dunkulen duniya yana aiki ne a matsayin abin rufe jiki, don samun makamashin karkashin kasa, dole ne a huda da bututu, magma ko ruwa. Wannan yana ba da izinin watsi da ciki da kama shi ta hanyar shuke-shuke da wutar lantarki.

Electricityarfin wutar lantarki ta geothermal yana buƙatar yanayin zafi mai yawa hakan na iya zuwa ne kawai daga mafi zurfin sassan duniya. Don kar a rasa zafi yayin safara zuwa shuka, dole ne a gina maginan magudanan ruwa, wuraren bazara masu zafi, yawo da ruwa, rijiyoyin ruwa ko hade dukkansu.

Adadin albarkatun da ake samu daga irin wannan kuzarin yana ƙaruwa tare da zurfin abin da aka huda shi da kusancin gefunan farantin. A waɗannan wuraren aikin geothermal ya fi girma, don haka akwai ƙarin zafin amfani.

Ta yaya tashar samar da wutar lantarki take aiki?

Aikin tashar samar da wutar lantarki yana dogara ne da wani hadadden aiki wanda yake aiki a ciki tsarin shuka-gona. Wato, ana fitar da makamashi daga cikin cikin Duniyar kuma ana kaiwa ga shuka inda ake samar da wutar lantarki.

Yankin geothermal

yankin madatsar ruwa

Filin geothermal ɗin da kuke aiki yayi daidai da yankin ƙasar tare da dan tudu na geothermal fiye da na al'ada. Wato, yawan ƙaruwa a cikin zafin jiki a zurfin. Wannan yankin da ke da tudu a geothermal galibi galibi saboda wanzuwar wani akwatin ruwa wanda aka keɓe da ruwan zafi wanda kuma aka adana shi kuma aka iyakance shi ta hanyar da ba shi da ƙarfi wanda ba zai iya kiyayewa ba. An san wannan a matsayin tafkin karkashin kasa kuma daga nan ne ake samun wannan zafi don samar da wutar lantarki.

Rijiyoyin hakar zafi na ƙasa da ke haɗuwa da tashar wutar lantarki suna cikin waɗannan filayen geothermal. Ana fitar da tururin ta hanyar hanyar sadarwar bututu kuma ana gudanar da shi zuwa ga shuka inda makamashin zafi na tururi ya juye zuwa kuzarin inji kuma daga baya ya zama makamashin lantarki.

Tsarin tsarawa

Tsarin ƙarni yana farawa tare da hakar tururi da cakuda ruwa daga tafkin mai na ƙasa. Da zarar an kai ga shuka, ana raba tururin daga ruwan geothermal ta hanyar amfani da kayan aiki ake kira cyclonic SEPARATOR. Lokacin da aka fitar da tururin, sai a sake mayar da ruwan zuwa farfajiyar don sake zafafa shi (saboda haka tushen sabuntawa ne).

Ana gudanar da tururin da aka cire zuwa shuka kuma yana kunna injin turbin wanda rotor ɗinsa ke juyawa a 3 juyin juya halin a minti daya, wanda hakan ke kunna janareta, inda gogayya da sinadaran lantarki ke canza makamashin inji zuwa makamashin lantarki. 13800 volts suna fitowa daga janareto wanda idan aka tura su zuwa masu canza wuta, ana canza su zuwa 115000 volts. Ana gabatar da wannan makamashi a cikin manyan layukan wutar da za'a tura su zuwa tashoshin kuma daga can zuwa sauran gidaje, masana'antu, makarantu da asibitoci.

An sake sanya tururin da ke cikin geothermal kuma aka sake sanya shi cikin ƙasan bayan an juya turbine. Wannan aikin yana sanya ruwan ya sake zama ruwa a cikin matattarar ruwa kuma ya maida shi hakar makamashi mai sabuntawa, tunda idan aka sake zafin zai zama tururi ya sake juya turbine din. Duk wannan, ana iya cewa makamashin geothermal tsabtace ne, mai kewaya, mai sabuntawa da samarda makamashi, Tun da tare da sake shigar da albarkatun da ake samar da makamashi da su. Idan ba a sake raba ruwan da keɓaɓɓiyar tururin ba a cikin maɓuɓɓugar mai, ba za a ɗaukarsa a matsayin makamashi mai sabuntawa ba, tunda, da zarar albarkatun sun ƙare, ba za a sake fitar da tururin ba.

Ire-iren shuke-shuke masu samar da wutar lantarki

Akwai nau'ikan wutar lantarki na geothermal guda uku.

Bushewar tururi

busasshen tsire-tsire mai tsire-tsire

Wadannan bangarorin suna da tsari mafi sauki da kuma tsufa. Su ne waɗanda ke amfani da tururi kai tsaye a zafin jiki na kimanin digiri 150 ko sama da haka don fitar da injin turbin da samar da lantarki.

Flash Steam Shuke-shuke

filayen samar da wutar lantarki

Wadannan tsire-tsire suna aiki ta hanyar ɗaga ruwan zafi mai ƙarfi ta cikin rijiyoyi da gabatar da shi cikin tankunan ƙaramin matsi. Lokacin da aka saukar da matsin, wani bangare na ruwa yana tururi ya rabu da ruwan don fitar da injin turbin. Kamar yadda yake a wasu lokutan, ana mayar da ruwa mai yawa da tururin da aka tara a cikin tafkin.

Binary Cycle Centrals

Binary sake zagayowar geothermal ikon shuka

Waɗannan sune mafi zamani kuma zasu iya aiki a yanayin zafin jiki na ruwa digiri 57 kawai. Ruwan yana da matsakaiciyar zafi kuma ana wuce shi tare da wani ruwa wanda ke da tafasasshen ƙasa sosai fiye da ruwa. Ta wannan hanyar, lokacin da ya yi mu'amala da ruwa, koda a zafin jiki na digiri 57 kawai, yana tururi kuma ana iya amfani dashi don matsar da turbines.

Tare da wannan bayanin, tabbas babu shakku game da aikin tashar samar da wutar lantarki.

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