Sharar gidan rediyo

gurbacewar nukiliya

A cikin tsire-tsire masu ƙarfin nukiliya, sharar gidan rediyo sakamakon fashewar nukiliya a cikin reactors. Waɗannan ɓarnar na iya haifar da wata babbar matsalar gurɓacewar muhalli idan aka ba su babban adadin yawan guba da kuma tsawon lokacin lalata su. Akwai hanyoyi daban-daban na sarrafa sharar iska don rage tasirin muhalli.

A cikin wannan labarin zamu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da sharar iska, da halayenta da kuma kula da muhalli.

Babban fasali

sharar nukiliya

Sharar gidan rediyo ana daukarta a matsayin duk wani abu ko kayan sharar gida, wanda ba a amfaninsu gaba daya, wanda ya kunshi ko kuma ya gurbata da radionuclides a cikin natsuwa ko matakan aiki sama da wanda Ma'aikatar Masana'antu da Makamashi ta kafa, bayan rahoto mai kyau daga Nukiliyar Majalisar Tsaro. Akwai wasu ka'idoji don samun damar rarraba sharar iska, gwargwadon halaye da asalin ta. Bari mu ga menene waɗannan ƙa'idodin:

  • Yanayin jiki. Saboda yanayin jikin ta, ana sanya shara a matsayin mai ƙarfi, ruwa kuma mai iska. Tunda ana kula da shara ko sarrafa shi ta hanyar sharar iska kamar yadda ya dace ko na ruwa ne ko na iska, wannan dokar tana da matukar mahimmanci.
  • Nau'in radiation wanda aka fitar. Radionuclides da ke cikin sharar iska zai iya narkewa ta hanyoyi daban-daban, wanda zai haifar da fitowar abubuwa daban-daban ko haskoki. Daga wannan hangen nesan, ana rarraba sharar gidan rediyo a cikin fitowar α, β da γ. Tunda kowane nau'i na radiation yana hulɗa da kwayoyin halitta ta hanyoyi daban-daban, yana nuna tsayi-tsaka-tsaka ko tsayi iri ɗaya, ya isa matsakaiciyar iska, mizani yana ƙayyade katangar kariya, sarrafa sharar, da yanayin yanayin fallasar radiation gaba ɗaya. A cikin wurin ajiya.
  • Rabin-rai: Dogaro da rabin rai na radionuclides da ke cikin ɓarnar (ko lokacin da aikin rediyon ya ragu), ana iya yin rarar gajeren lokaci da na tsawon rai.
  • Takamaiman aiki: wannan ma'auni yana ƙayyade matsalolin kariya na ɗan gajeren lokaci, tunda matakin aiki na yanayin ɓarnatar da kariya yayin kiyaye al'ada da jigilar kaya.
  • Rikicin radiyo: Radiotoxicity dukiya ce ta sharar gidan iska wacce ke bayyana hatsarinta daga mahangar nazarin halittu.

Zubar da shara na radiyo

sharar gidan rediyo

Sharar nukiliya ta fi kashi 90% na uranium. Sabili da haka, kashe mai (yaci) har yanzu ya ƙunshi 90% na mai mai amfani. Ana iya magance shi ta hanyar sinadarai sannan a sanya shi a cikin mai saurin haɓaka mai sauri (wanda ba a fara aiwatar dashi ba a babban sikelin) don dakatar da sake zagayowar mai. Rufe zagayen mai yana nufin karancin sharar nukiliya da kuma karin makamashi da ake ciro daga albarkatun ƙasa.

Ragowar mafi yawan rayuwar rediyo a cikin sharar nukiliya abubuwa ne masu lalacewa wadanda za a iya amfani da su azaman man fetur: abubuwanda ke cikin jerin p da sub-act. Idan waɗannan abubuwan sun ƙone don mai ta hanyar sake amfani da su, sharar nukiliyar za ta ci gaba da yin rediyo na fewan shekaru ɗari maimakon ɗaruruwan ɗari. Wannan yana rage matsalar ajiyar lokaci mai tsawo.

Idan aka rarraba duk wani amfani da wutar lantarki a Amurka a tsakanin jama'ar ta kuma komai ya fito ne daga makamashin nukiliya, yawan barnar nukiliyar da kowane mutum zai samar a kowace shekara zai zama gram 39,5. Idan muka sami dukkan wutar lantarki daga kwal da gas, muna fitar da sama da kilogiram 10,000 na carbon dioxide a kowace shekara ta mutum.

Inda ake adana sharar iska

maganin sharar iska mai guba

Adanawa da sarrafa sharar iska yana gabatar da 'yan ƙalilan. Kuma ya zama dole ne ka nemi hanyar rage gurbatar muhalli da kaucewa duk wata masifa. Hanyar da aka yi amfani da ita lokacin da game da kawar da sharar iska shine a binne shi a can kasan. Koyaya, wannan aikin bashi da sauki kamar yadda yake sauti.

Dole ne mu tuna cewa zubar da shara na matakin nukiliya yana buƙatar zurfin gaske tunda waɗannan ɓarnar na iya zama haɗari sosai. Akwai sanannun wuraren da ake zubar da shara ta iska a duniya. Misali, Sweden din suna da kayan aiki a Oskarshamn wanda ke da ajiyar dattin nukiliya na dogon lokaci sama da shekaru 100.000.

(Asar Amirka na da wani aiki mai gudana na shekaru da ake kira Yucca Mountain Nuclear Wasto Repository a Nevada, amma gwamnatin Obama ta ƙare shi a 2011. A halin yanzu akwai sama da metric tan dubu 50.000 na man nukiliya kawai ana amfani dashi a Amurka. Wannan adadin yana tarawa kuma da yawa suna ƙoƙarin yin zaɓuɓɓuka daban-daban don iya magance wannan ɓarnar. Wadansu suna tunanin harba duk abubuwan da ke lalata iska a cikin sararin samaniya, suna binne shi a cikin ruwa mai zurfi, suna ba da dukkan sharar a cikin kankara da kowane irin yanayin kasa.

Maimaitawa da sake amfani

Ba abin mamaki bane, ana gujewa wannan yayin da masana kimiyya ke aiki don magance matsalar sharar gida ta hanyar sake sarrafawa da sake sarrafa shara. Idan waɗannan karatun da bincike zasu sami nasara, za'a iya rage adadin sharar iska duk masana'antar makamashin nukiliya sun samar har zuwa 90%.

Lokacin da 5% na uranium a sandunan nukiliya suka amsa, gabadayan sandar mai ya gurɓata da plutonium da sauran kayayyakin da ke faruwa a cikin ɓarnar nukiliya. Wadannan sandunan da aka kashe suna da inganci don samar da wutar lantarki, saboda haka dole ne a kula dasu azaman ɓarnatarwa. Sake amfani da sharar iska ta kunshi cire abubuwa masu amfani wadanda suka rage don samar da makamashi. Manufar waɗannan fasahohin shine don inganta tasirin makamashin nukiliya yadda yakamata.

Koyaya, akwai matsaloli da yawa waɗanda suke da alaƙa da sake sarrafawa da sake sarrafa sharar nukiliya. Daga cikin matsalolin da wannan ya ƙunsa, mafi mahimmanci shine tsada da muhawara akan shin waɗannan hanyoyin suna da fa'ida ko a'a ga muhalli. A halin yanzu a wasu ƙasashe ba a yarda da sake sarrafa sharar nukiliya ba.

Mun san cewa makamashin nukiliya ba ya samar da iskar gas, sharar da ta rage rediyo sama da shekaru 100.000. Wannan yana wakiltar mummunar matsala ga mutane da muhalli.

Ina fatan cewa da wannan bayanin zaku iya koyo game da sharar iska da halayen ta.


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