sassan kwayar halitta

duk sassan tantanin halitta Mun san cewa tantanin halitta shine ainihin sashin aiki na dukkan kyallen takarda a cikin dabbobi da tsirrai. A wannan yanayin, ana ɗaukar dabbobin halittu masu yawa, don haka suna da tantanin halitta fiye da ɗaya. Nau'in sel wanda yawanci yake da shi shine tantanin halitta eukaryotic kuma ana siffanta shi da samun ainihin tsakiya da ƙwararrun ƙwayoyin cuta daban-daban. Duk da haka, akwai daban-daban sassan tantanin halitta kuma kowannen su yana da aikin daban.

A cikin wannan labarin, za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da sassa daban-daban na tantanin halitta da menene babban bambanci tsakanin kwayar halitta da tantanin shuka.

sassan kwayar halitta

sassan kwayar halittar dabba

Babban

Kwayar kwayar halitta ce ta ƙware wajen sarrafawa da sarrafa bayanan salula. Kwayoyin Eukaryotic yawanci suna da tsakiya guda ɗaya, amma akwai keɓancewa inda za mu iya samun ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta da yawa. Siffar wannan kwayar halitta ta bambanta dangane da tantanin halitta da yake ciki, amma yawanci zagaye ne. Ana adana kayan kwayoyin halitta a cikinta a cikin hanyar DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), wanda ke da alhakin daidaita ayyukan tantanin halitta: daga girma zuwa haifuwa. Akwai kuma wani tsari da ake iya gani a cikin tsakiya wanda ake kira nucleolus, wanda ke samuwa ta hanyar tattarawar chromatin da furotin. Kwayoyin dabbobi masu shayarwa suna da 1 zuwa 5 nucleoli.

Kwayoyin plasma da cytoplasm

cytoplasm

Membran plasma shine tsarin da ke kewaye da tantanin halitta kuma yana cikin dukkan sel masu rai. Ita ce ke kula da rufe wadannan abubuwan da ke ciki da kuma kare su daga yanayin waje. wannan ba yana nufin cewa membrane ne mai rufewa ba tunda tana da pores da wasu sifofi da wasu kwayoyin halitta dole ne su wuce su don aiwatar da tsarin ciki na kwayar halitta.

Cytoplasm na sel dabba shine sarari tsakanin membrane na cytoplasmic da tsakiya, wanda ke kewaye da dukkan kwayoyin halitta. Yana da kashi 70% na ruwa, sauran kuma cakuda sunadarai ne, lipids, carbohydrates da gishirin ma'adinai. Wannan matsakaici yana da mahimmanci don haɓaka ƙarfin tantanin halitta.

Endoplasmic reticulum da Golgi apparatus

Ƙungiyar endoplasmic ce ta gabobin jiki a cikin nau'i na baƙaƙen jakunkuna da tubules da aka jera a saman juna, suna raba sararin ciki iri ɗaya. An tsara reticulum zuwa yankuna da yawa: m endoplasmic reticulum, tare da lallausan membrane da hade ribosomes, da kuma santsi na endoplasmic reticulum, mafi rashin daidaituwa a bayyanar kuma ba tare da haɗin gwiwar ribosomes ba.

Yana da wani sa na tanki-kamar membranes alhakin rarrabawa da kuma isar da kayayyakin sinadarai daga tantanin halitta, wato, ita ce cibiyar ɓoyewar salula. Yana da siffa mai kama da rukunin Golgi ko na’urar tantanin halitta kuma ya ƙunshi sassa uku: jakar membrane, tubules ɗin da ake jigilar abubuwa ciki da waje ta cikin tantanin halitta, sannan kuma a ƙarshe vacuole.

Centrosome, cilia da flagella

Centrosome sifa ce ta sel dabbobi kuma tsari ne maras kyau wanda ya ƙunshi centrioles biyu. shirya perpendicular da juna. Abun da ke tattare da wannan kwayar halitta yana kunshe da tubules na furotin, wanda ke da aiki mai mahimmanci a cikin rarraba tantanin halitta tun lokacin da suke tsara cytoskeleton kuma suna haifar da spindle yayin mitosis. Yana kuma iya samar da cilia ko flagella.

Cilia da flagella na sel dabba su ne abubuwan da aka kafa ta microtubules waɗanda ke ba da ruwa ga tantanin halitta. Suna wanzuwa a cikin kwayoyin halitta na unicellular kuma suna da alhakin motsin su, yayin da a cikin wasu sel ana amfani da su don kawar da ayyukan muhalli ko na hankali. Yawanci, cilia sun fi flagella yawa.

mitochondria da cytoskeleton

Mitochondria su ne organelles a cikin sel dabbobi inda abubuwan gina jiki suka isa kuma ana canza su zuwa makamashi a cikin wani tsari da ake kira numfashi. Suna da tsayin siffa kuma suna da membranes guda biyu: membrane na ciki wanda aka naɗe don samar da cristae da membrane na waje mai santsi. Adadin mitochondria da ke cikin kowane tantanin halitta ya dogara da ayyukansu (misali, a cikin ƙwayoyin tsoka za a sami adadi mai yawa na mitochondria).

Don kammala jerin manyan sassan ƙwayoyin dabba, muna komawa zuwa cytoskeleton. Yana da nau'in filament da ke wanzuwa a cikin cytoplasm kuma, baya ga aikinsa na tsara kwayoyin halitta, yana da aikin tallafawa kwayoyin halitta.

Bambanci tsakanin kwayar dabbobi da kwayar halitta

Bambanci tsakanin kwayar dabbobi da kwayar halitta

Akwai wasu manyan bambance-bambance a cikin sassan dabba da tantanin halitta. Bari mu ga menene manyan bambance-bambancen su:

  • Kwayoyin shuka Yana da bangon tantanin halitta a wajen ƙwayar plasma wanda dabba ba ta da shi. Kamar dai rufi ne na biyu wanda ya fi rufe shi. Wannan bango yana ba shi babban ƙarfi da kariya mafi girma. Wannan bango yana kunshe da cellulose, lignin da sauran abubuwa. Wasu sassan bangon tantanin halitta suna da wasu aikace-aikace a cikin saitunan kasuwanci da masana'antu.
  • Ba kamar kwayar dabba ba, kwayar shuka tana da chloroplasts a ciki. Chloroplasts sune wadanda suke da launuka irin su chlorophyll ko carotene wadanda sune suke baiwa shuke-shuke damar daukar hoto.
  • Kwayoyin shuka suna iya samar da nasu abincin godiya saboda wasu abubuwan da ba su da tushe. Suna yin wannan ta hanyar abin da ya faru na hotunan hoto. Wannan nau'in abinci mai gina jiki ana kiransa autotrophic.
  • Kwayoyin dabbobi, a gefe guda, ba su da ikon samar da nasu abinci daga abubuwan da ba su dace ba. Sabili da haka, abinci mai gina jiki shine heterotrophic. Dabbobi dole ne su haɗa da abinci irin na wasu dabbobi ko tsirrai da kansu.
  • Kwayoyin shuka suna ba da damar canzawa makamashin sinadarai zuwa makamashi zuwa hasken rana ko makamashin haske godiya ga tsarin photosynthesis.
  • A cikin ƙwayoyin dabbobi, mitochondria ne ke samar da kuzari.
  • Cytoplasm na tantanin halitta yana shagaltar da manya-manyan vacuoles a cikin kashi 90% na sararin samaniya. Wani lokaci akwai babban fanko guda ɗaya kawai. Vacuoles suna aiki don adana samfuran daban-daban waɗanda suka samo asali yayin metabolism. Bugu da ƙari, yana kawar da samfuran sharar gida daban-daban waɗanda ke faruwa a cikin halayen metabolism iri ɗaya. Kwayoyin dabba suna da vacuoles amma ƙanƙanta ne kuma ba sa ɗaukar sarari da yawa.
  • A cikin sel dabba muna samun sashin jiki wanda ana kiransa centrosome. Ita ce ke da alhakin rarraba chromosomes don ƙirƙirar 'ya'ya mata, yayin da a cikin kwayoyin halitta babu irin wannan kwayoyin halitta.
  • Kwayoyin shuke-shuke suna da siffa mai tsarkewa, yayin da kwayoyin dabbobi suke da siffofi daban-daban.

Ina fatan da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da sassan tantanin halitta da halayensa.


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