Pyrolysis

pyrolysis shuka

Hanyar pyrolysis ko pyrolytic, wanda kuma aka sani, wani tsari ne wanda lalacewa na biomass ke samuwa ta hanyar aikin zafi ba tare da buƙatar iskar oxygen ba, wato, yana faruwa a cikin yanayi mara kyau. Samfuran da aka samu a sakamakon pyrolysis na iya zama daskararru, ruwa da iskar gas, kuma sun dace da samfuran kamar gawayi ko gawayi, kwalta da kuma a ƙarshe sanannun samfuran gas ko tururin gawayi. Wannan tsari na iya faruwa shi kadai a cikin yanayi ko tare yayin konewa ko gasification.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da pyrolysis, halaye da mahimmancinsa.

Babban fasali

pyrolytic tsari

Pyrolysis magani ne na thermochemical wanda Ana iya amfani da shi ga kowane samfurin halitta na tushen carbon. Ana fallasa kayan zuwa yanayin zafi mai zafi, idan babu iskar oxygen, don kemikal da ta jiki keɓaɓɓu cikin ƙwayoyin cuta daban-daban.

Pyrolysis wani nau'i ne na thermolysis kuma ana iya bayyana shi azaman bazuwar thermal wanda abu ke shiga cikin rashin iskar oxygen ko wani nau'in reagent. Rushewar da aka yi na iya haifarwa daga ɗimbin sarƙaƙƙiya na halayen sinadarai da zafi da hanyoyin canja wurin taro. Hakanan ana iya bayyana shi azaman matakan da ke faruwa kafin iskar gas da konewa.

Idan ya faru a cikin matsanancin yanayinsa. carbon ne kawai ya rage a matsayin saura, wanda ake kira charring. Ta hanyar pyrolysis za mu iya samun samfurori na biyu daban-daban waɗanda ke da amfani a fagen fasaha. Samfuran Pyrolysis koyaushe suna samar da iskar gas mai ƙarfi kamar carbon, ruwaye da iskar gas mara ƙarfi kamar H2, CH4, CnHm, CO, CO2 da N. Tun da lokacin ruwa ana fitar da shi ne kawai daga iskar pyrolysis lokacin sanyaya, koguna biyu na iskar gas. za a iya amfani da su tare a wasu aikace-aikace inda aka kawo syngas mai zafi kai tsaye zuwa ɗakin ƙonawa ko oxidation ɗakin.

Nau'in pyrolysis

pyrolysis

Akwai nau'ikan pyrolysis iri biyu daban-daban dangane da yanayin jiki wanda ake aiwatar da shi:

  • pyrolysis mai ruwa: Ana amfani da wannan kalmar lokacin da ya zama dole don komawa ga pyrolysis wanda ke faruwa a gaban ruwa, kamar tururi mai fashewa ko lalatawar thermal depolymerization na kwayoyin halitta a cikin manyan danyen mai.
  • Vacuum Pyrolysis: Irin wannan nau'in pyrolysis na vacuum ya ƙunshi dumama kayan halitta a cikin sarari don cimma ƙananan wuraren tafasa da kuma guje wa halayen sinadarai marasa kyau.

Tsarin da pyrolysis ke faruwa ya kasu kashi uku matakai, kamar haka:

  • A mataki na farko akwai jinkirin bazuwa tare da samar da ruwa kaɗan, oxides na carbon, hydrogen da methane. Wannan rubewar na faruwa ne sakamakon karyewar layukan da ake yi saboda tsananin zafin aikin da fitar da iskar gas da ke makale a cikin kwal.
  • Ana kiran mataki na biyu aiki thermal bazuwar mataki. Zazzabi yana tashi yayin wannan matakin kuma ƙwayoyin carbon suna rushewa sosai, suna samar da hydrocarbons da kwalta. Wannan lokaci yana farawa a 360º C kuma yana ƙare lokacin da ya kai zafin jiki na kusan 560º C.
  • Matakin ƙarshe yana faruwa a yanayin zafi sama da 600ºC kuma ana siffanta shi da bacewar hydrogen da sauran heteroatoms a hankali.

Menene pyrolysis ake amfani dashi a cikin dafa abinci?

tanda pyrolysis

Lokacin da muke cikin kicin, muna buƙatar samun kayan aikin da ake buƙata don sauƙaƙe rayuwarmu, kuma samun tanda na zamani ya dace da hakan. A halin yanzu akwai nau'ikan tanda tare da aikin tsabtace kai, wanda ake kira pyrolysis ovens, wanda babban aikinsa shine samun damar tsaftace kansu.

Irin wannan tanda Suna da ikon tada zafin jiki har zuwa 500 ° C, narkar da ragowar abinci a ciki, mayar da su tururi ko toka, da kuma kawar da wari mara dadi bayan dafa a cikin tanda. Wato abinci ya ragu, saboda yanayin zafi, yana mai da kwayoyin halitta zuwa carbon dioxide, wanda da zarar ya koma ruwa, sai ya kwashe; haka kuma, kwayoyin da ba a iya gani ba su kan koma toka idan sun gamu da zazzabin.

Wannan tsari na iya ɗaukar daga 1 zuwa 4 hours., Dangane da yadda tsabtataccen shirin yake, a ƙarshe muna kawai tsaftace tanda tare da zane mai laushi kuma mu tattara toka. Ta wannan hanyar, ana kawar da amfani da sinadarai masu illa ga lafiya cikin lokaci.

Amfani a cikin tanda da mahimmancin muhalli

Samun tanda da ke ba mu damar adana lokaci da kuɗi, yin pyrolysis yana kawo fa'idodi masu zuwa:

  • Ba tare da wata shakka ba, babban amfani shine aikin tsaftace kai.
  • Yana da muhalli yayin da yake rage amfani da samfuran sinadarai don tsaftace tanda.
  • Dangane da kididdigar farashin wutar lantarki na Hukumar Makamashi ta Kasa, farashin wutar lantarki ya yi kadan domin yana cin kashi 0,39 ne kawai.
  • An yi shi da kayan aiki mafi girma don karewa furniture daga high yanayin zafi.
  • Lokacin da tanderun ya kai zafin jiki na 500 ° C, Ƙofar tanda ta kulle kuma tanda ta wanke kanta don hana haɗari.
  • Sun fi dacewa da inganci fiye da tanda na gargajiya.
  • Ana iya tsara shi don fara pyrolysis a lokutan da farashin wutar lantarki ya fi ƙanƙanta.

Pyrolysis yana da mahimmanci saboda yana taimakawa wajen sarrafa gurɓataccen iska mai alaƙa da ƙonewa.. Har ila yau yana taimakawa wajen rage yawan sharar da ke shigowa da kuma samar da sharar da ba ta dace ba, wanda ke tsawaita rayuwar wurin da kuma inganta ingancin wurin. A ƙarshe, ita ma hanya ce ta mai da wani ɓangare na sharar gida zuwa man fetur mai karɓuwa kuma mai ɗaukar nauyi.

Game da pyrolysis na lignin, kuma wani sashi na itace, yana samar da mahadi masu ƙanshi da babban abun ciki na carbon. game da 55% na cellulose da 20% na man itace. 15% ragowar tar da kuma 10% gas.

A yayin da yanayin dajin ya zama pyrolyzed, kaddarorinsa suna da tasiri sosai akan samfurin da aka samu. Misali, aikin danshi shine rage yawan amfanin aikin caja saboda ana buƙatar zafi don fitar da ruwa tare da samar da ƙarin karɓaɓɓen carbon fiye da lokacin da biomass yana da ƙarancin ɗanɗano. Don haka, ana bada shawarar cewa danshi na biomass ya kasance kusa da 10%. Yawancin kayan abinci na farko kuma yana shafar ingancin carbon ɗin da za a yi ta pyrolysis, kuma ana ba da shawarar ragowar gandun daji don ingantaccen carbon.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin za ku iya ƙarin koyo game da pyrolysis da halayensa.


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